MÉTODO BOB BECK = EFECTO LAZARO

"...el problema es que los "médicos" TE MATARÁN  (delito de error tratamiento) si pisas un hospital sí o sí, como hoy mismo están matando, como en los 80 mataron a todos...debido al delito que han cometido de error diagnóstico. Desde 1997 saben que el vih nunca existió (Aquí Glusschankof et al 1997 Aquí Bess et al 1997)....por una diarrea te matarán(la plata específicamente para diarreas AQUÍ)....por una cándida en la boca te matarán(MASTICAR AJOS BLANCOS CRUDOS Y TRAGARLOS LA CURA)...por una neumonía (se cura con dieta Tine) te matarán...."

Si nunca se ha tomado ARV éste método funciona de por vida en caso de necesitarse....si se han tomado AZT/ARV entonces la médula osea esta dañada (sida iatrogénico), junto con otros órganos del cuerpo, el método protegerá de infecciones oportunistas y también funcionará, pero los niveles sanguíneos pueden verse alterados.
  IMPORTANTE: como el mismo Bob Beck avisó, el uso durante 21 días consecutivos (lo recomendado) provoca caída de las falsa tcd4 drástica, es necesario esperar algunas semanas (mínimo 4) sin usar el protocolo para recuperar los niveles sanguíneos, rebote al alza de las falsas tcd4. Es decir la sangre se ha de medir, si es que la queréis medir, pasadas 4 semanas después de finalizar los 21 días del protocolo  para que las falsas tcd4 hayan subido. si usais el electrificador constantemente más allá de los 21 días las falsas tcd4 ¡siempre saldrán bajas!....En las 4 semanas de descanso después de usar el protocolo sería muy inteligente (obligatorio casi) suplementar con zinc y antioxidantes, bitaminas b superconcentradas y dieta TINE VAN DER MAAS.

  ESTA PÁGINA ESTA DEDICADA A LA CURACIÓN  DE CÁNCERES CON ELECTRICIDAD EN MEMORIA DE BOB BECK. 
  PRUEBAS, ENSAYOS CLÍNICOS Y HASTA TUMORES CURADOS POR RAYOS DE TORMENTA SON EL CONTENIDO CRECIENTE  Y ABRUMADOR DE ESTA PÁGINA. 
  ESTE  ES EL FIN DE LA QUIMIOTERAPIA (ASTUTO SISTEMA DE EJECUTAR A ENFERMOS DE CANCER Y REDUCIR RÁPIDAMENTE LA POBLACIÓN) Y ES EL PRINCIPIO DE LA SALUD VERDADERA DE TODO EL PLANETA TIERRA.

AQUÍ UNA DE LAS MUCHAS PATENTES QUE DEMUESTRAN QUE LA ELECTRICIDAD MATA-DESACTIVA-TODOS LOS VIRUS-BACTERIAS-HONGOS http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4665898.html
patent, #4665898
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/64/9/3288.abstract

Si alguien quiere comprar estos aparatos en : http://www.sota.com/. Testimonios e información de cáncer curado con el protocolo Bob Beck y electricidad: http://www.dragonfly75.com (También están los planos en internet por si se quiere construir uno mismo el aparato)

Aunque BOB BECK al comienzo de sus investigaciones creía en la existencia del vih, con el paso de los años se volvió escéptico al respecto. Sin embargo los aparatos que diseñó consiguieron eliminar las inmunodeficiencias cuando estas aparecían por los verdaderos motivos (el vih recordad es inexistente). Casualmente se dió cuenta (según sus palabras) que el mismo método eliminaba espontaneamente 99%-100% de las tumoraciones. Afortunada casualidad. Bob Beck era un experto en electromedicina y recomendaba su método por encima de otros incluido el nutricional. Nosotros nos inclinamos por una combinación de todos ellos a la vez.Sólo con la oposición que BOB BECK mostró a los ARV...sólo con eso...prolongó décadas la esperanza de vida de los pacientes.

El protocolo Bob beck erradica la malaria, la hepatitis B etc.....Cura enfermedades autoinmunes, lupus etc...
En los siguientes vídeos se muestran testimonios cada vez más crecientes de pacientes de cancer, parálisis, enfermedad lyme y otros curados con Bob Beck.
Algunos de los miles de Testimonios, estos grabados:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hu1P17QN2E: Protocolo Bob Beck cura infeccion crónica letal de parásitos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KrMjiUi8WU0: Protocolo Bob Beck cura encía y evita cirujia.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Myjk502MHCM: Protocolo Bob Beck cura esclerosis múltiple y se levanta de silla de ruedas
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtDBrzcGD9k: Protocolo Bob Beck cura enfermedad de lyme
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjlLTllDCf8: Protocolo Bob Beck cura cancer hígado sin necesidad de transplante
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhj9UwC_urc: Protocolo Bob Beck salva la vida de un niño con leucemia bajo quimio, todos sus 19 compañeros del hospital mueren menos el chaval que uso bob beck y dos más. La diferencia es que mientras le daban la quimo y usaba bob beck se pasaba el dia jugando y los otros dos supervivientes yacían moribundos en sus camas. Sus pieles quedaron amarillas mientras que la del chaval quedó rosadita.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fz7b1GabsHc: Protocolo Bob Beck cura cfs-epstain-barr virus
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WP2ueorPWwA: Protocolo Bob Beck cura enfermedad adrenal
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YIff-QMtw5E: protocolo Bob Beck cura sida, en paciente que había tomado ARV y se moría.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4iUpU6q0FY: protocolo Bob Beck cura atsma.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3ccSXI3IGc: protocolo Bob Beck cura cancer de próstata evita cirujia.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tp_y7klhamc: protocolo Bob Beck reduce hasta un 80% las pastillas ingeridas por enfermo crónico múltiple. Mejora del riñón que le quedaba y mejora del páncreas.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvQGeTfFhmY: protocolo Bob Beck negativiza hepatitis B en pocas semanas después de 7 años de arrastrarla, y elimina sida en paciente que empezó con los ARV y los dejó. 
Mejora de calidad de vida superlativa. No compró los aparátos se los hizo él mismo siguiendo los planos colgados en la red.

El método de Bob Beck según testimónios no solo cura y elimina toda la sintomatología llamada de Sida, cura todos los canceres (según Bob Beck y Testimónios), artritis, fibromialgia, la gripe (sólo con una dosis anal de plata coloidal 220 voltios de 60ml la GRIPE A,B,C o cualquiera para inmediatamente la gripe (sudores, dolores, mareos, tos, temblores etc) a partir de 30 minutos a 2 horas después de la toma anal , se recomienda repetir la dosis cada 4 horas y en días sucesivos hasta 7 para asegurarse de que la gripe (cualquiera) queda erradicada, sin necesitad de intervención del sistema inmune). Repetimos la gripe para a los 30 minutos -2 horas de la primera dosis anal de plata colloidal 220v, comprobado. La plata coloidal cura la gripe. Si en vez de 60ml se hacen dos tomas de 60 ml y 60ml la gripe para más rápido y más tajantemente.
 La plata coloidal anal 220v es cientos de veces más efectiva y  rápida que la tomada oralmente.



Lo que sigue a continuación es una condensación del trabajo del físico Bob Beck curando sidas y canceres.
ENTREVISTA A BOB BECK 1997
Bob Beck es un fisico, con un doctorado PhD en physics por la University de Southern California. Con anterioridad habia sido Professor en la University of California. Comenzo su carrera profesional como un photo-journalist y era dueño de un estudio fotografico en Hollywood. Es investigador e inventor que le gusta mejorar los inventos de otra gente.
Su versión del Brain Tuner se ha usado con exito para aliviar el insonnio, depresion, anxiety y adicciones. Tambien es el inventor del strobe flash light. Ha sido propuesto por un Mexican hospital para el Noble Prize por su investigacion sobre la cura del aids. He believed that he would not receive the prize, which he did not, because he is not a “team player” en el campo de la "medicina oficial".

Leading Edge Newspaper publishers Kenneth and Dee Burke entrevistaron a Bob Beck at the Global Sciences Congress en Denver, Colorado, where cutting-edge, innovative information continues to be presented year after year. 
Afirmaciones de Robert C. Beck: ” Todas las afirmaciones hechas por mi son mías y solo mías . Estoy diciciendo ésto como mi opinión personal. Estoy diciendo ésto como teoría aunque tenemos abundantes pruebas. Digo que esta información es dada para vuestra educación y vuestra información. Yo no puedo hacer ninguna afirmación médica aunque tenemos "cientos de remisiones exponbtánesa" (AQUI BOB EN VEZ DE DECIR CURACIONES TOTALES DE SIDAS Y CANCERES SE VIO OBLIGADO A DECIR REMISIONES ESPONTÁNEAS PARA QUE NO LE ENCERRARAN) Todo lo que digo esta protegido por copyright 1997 por Robert C.Beck.
LE: Bob, diganos acerca de su tecnologia de bajo costo que nos permite curar enfermedades como el AIDS y el cancer.
Bob: El sistema del que voy a referirme cuesta $1.32 para curar el HIV, Epstein-Barre, hepatitis, herpes y aun el cancer. And es una de las mayores sorpresas que haya tenido en la vida. Tengo un paquete de chicle Spearmint. Me costo $1.32 en el aeropuerto. Por esa cantidad de dinero, o una lata de Coca-Cola, puede conseguir una cura al 100% para el AIDS, cancer y todas las otras enfermedades conocidas de los humanos, incluyendo algunas que todavía no hemos tenido como el Ebola.

Una cura al 100%, y todavia puede estar vivo dentro de cinco años, while the statistics dicen que solo el 5% de pacientes con cancer estaran vivos despues de cinco años. Si tiene lo que yo llamo “immortal blood,” puede vivir hasta los 110 años, con salud perfecta. Una mujer en France acaba de morir a la edad de 122. Lo puede hacer por su cuenta y resulta barato. Ya nunca tendra un resfriado. Nunca faltara al trabajo. Esta es la mejor inversion que pueda hacer en su salud. 

Consiste en recuperar su poder de los doctores y de las empresas farmaceuticas que lo han tenido durante generaciones. Ademas lo garantizamos. Tenemos un monton de testimonios, cientos de recuperaciones astounding spontaneous, y contamos con registros medicos para probarlo. It will work. No tal vez. 

Se trata de la informacion mas valiosa que jamas haya visto. It is the best that our science pueda ofrecer actualmente en los hospitales y clinicas de America. Recientemente, a Jane y a mi, nos invitaron a la clinica mas grande sobre la cura alternativa del cancer en el hemisferio occidental. La persona encargada de la clinica me dijo que el 87% de los pacientes desahuciados de cancer, not mid-stage, que habian dado por muertos, ahora se encuentran curados! Ahora tienen cicatrices donde antes tenian lesiones; tienen biopsias limpias. Estan de pie, estan de vuelta en su trabajo. 

Estos pacientes usaron la tecnologia que estamos examinando hoy. Cuando las pruebas demostraron que la tecnología en realidad funcionaba, la Junta Directiva de uno de los hospitales mas grandes del Sur de California me cito. They confronted me y me pidieron que negara que esta tecnologia funcionaba. Porque? Porque sus negocios estaban de por medio. Sabia que la mafia (“mob”) es dueña de por lo menos el 51% de las empresas farmaceuticas en este pais? No quieren pacientes que puedan curarse por su cuenta. 

Un abogado de 80 años se me acerco no hace mucho, y dijo, “Bob, me dieron por muerto. Mi cancer se habia metastasized (diseminado por todo el cuerpo). Me mandaron a casa a escribir mi testamento, a poner mis cosas en orden . . . y esperar la muerte. Mande a mi hijo a Radio Shack, donde compro las refacciones para tu aparato con un costo de $39.00. Armamos el aparato. Tres semanas mas tarde visite el hospital, and walked out with clean biopsies. Se quedaron muy sorprendidos. Estoy de regreso en mi trabajo, trabajo 14 horas al dia para recuperar el tiempo que estuve en cuidados intensivos. I am jogging two miles a day.” 

Otra persona que se me acerco durante una conferencia me dijo, ” Era un paciente moribundo con AIDS. Necesitaba de dos ayudantes para llevarme al baño. Estoy de regreso al trabajo, y ya no tengo sintomas.” One AIDS patient started on our program with a PCR test, which measures the number of HIV particles en un centimetro cubico de sangre, con un conteo de 412,473 en June 9, 1995. Cuando termino en November 1, 1995, su conteo fue menos de 100 particulas. 

Cien particulas es la cantidad mas pequeña que pueden medir sus instrumentos, so if the count is less than 100 particles, se mide como cero. De manera que se puede decir que tuvo una spontaneous remission. If I only had one of these, it could be a fluke, an accident. Pero tenemos pruebas sobre pruebas de pacientes con los mismos resultados. We also waited a month after the blood cleaning took place to have the follow-up tests performed.

Cuando se ven con los propios ojos y los toca con sus propias manos, resulta diferente a que si se tratara de datos anecdoticos. Hemos tenido pacientes con Alzheimer que recuperan su memoria cuando oxigenan sus cerebros con esta tecnologia. Se puede comprar un ozonificador en una tienda de peces tropicales. The FDA prohibio la venta de ozonificadores para uso humano. 

Russ Torlage y yo vamos describir brevemente como obtener la tecnologia y como funciona. Mi historia personal es que estaba “90% muerto” cuando pesaba 290 libras (actualmente peso 145 pounds). Mi pelo se habia caido, pero ya me crecio de nuevo; mi libido estaba muerta; my prostate was shot. Al usar esta tecnologia, me he quitado 35 años de mi edad cronologica (tengo 72 años), y todo lo que tiene que hacer es ver una gota de mi sangre y tendra que creerlo. No hay efectos secundarios. Se que ahora estaria muerto si no fuera por este programa. So, I really do feel that I have been called to do this. 

Ahora peso la mitad de lo que pesaba antes. Cuando se eliminan todos los parasitos de la sangre, se pierde peso, porque los parasitos usan al organismo. Controlan tu apetito de manera que todo lo que se come se almacena para que ellos se lo coman. La gente que tiene AIDS nunca ha muerto de AIDS. Han muerto de infecciones opportunistic that have killed them debido a que su sistema inmune no funcionaba. Existen 23 infecciones inesperadas. Esta tecnologia mata a las 23. 

Los pacientes de AIDS se recuperan; regresan a su trabajo. Tenemos la evidencia. Se imagina lo devastador que resulta esta informacion para el establishment? Me encargaron pacientes desahuciados de cancer del hospital mas grande y mas conocido en California. After 12 of them were healed, some of them ended up committing suicide because le habiamos quitado sus muletas. We will say that this technology will not overcome a person’s death wish. That is an issue we have to find an answer for and have not yet found, but we will. 

LE: We heard that en los ultimos dias, se han presentado cinco casos de Anthrax en California y tambien en Phoenix, Arizona. 

Bob: Entendemos que alguna gente este jugando con la Plaga Bubonic y con el Anthrax. We have word from friends que se encuentran en las altas esferas que aseguran que nuestra tecnologia es la unica cosa conocida, ademas de la Ampicillin que tendria algun efecto on any of these diseases. 

LE: Podria hablar sobre la sangre inmortal? 

Bob: Inventamos la frase “inmortal blood,” pero en el sentido literal, pero no es cierta, por supuesto. Se trata solo de un termino romantico para describir la restauracion de la apariencia de la sangre to how it looks when cuando gozamosde perfecta salud.

When viewed under a dark-field microscope, the blood of a normal, healthy human being usually has a lot of parasitic worms, viruses, fungi, germs y pathogenos swimming around. Despues de tres semanas de aplicar la limpieza de la sangre, the magnetic pulsing y la plata coloidal, which I will talk about later, your blood is not clumped like slinky toys or stacks of poker chips. Who needs more proof than this? 

Cuando se restaura al sistema inmune, se puede controlar al cancer. Cualquier oncologo se lo puede decir. Se ha sabido por muchos años. Se puede restaurar la sangre a su estado inmortal. Lo puede hacer cualquiera en su casa. Tenemos la prueba clinica de que funciona. Es una tecnologia barata de hagalo usted mismo. 

LE: Me gustaria que nuestros lectores supieran acerca de como se involucraron con estas tecnologias que fortalecen al sistema inmune y que mata cualquier organismo extraño que invade al cuerpo. 

Bob: Lei un articulo en Science News publicado en March 30, 1991. En la pagina 207, describia al tratamiento “shocking” (escandalizante) propuesto para la cura del AIDS por el Albert Einstein College de Medicine en New York City, que por accidente habian descubierto una manera de curar todo tipo de AIDS. So I looked into this, y encontre que se habia presentado un estudio para la cura del AIDS en una Audiencia del Congreso sobre Combination Therapies en Washington, D.C., on March 14, 1991, en el First International Symposium on Combination Therapy. 

Cuando trate de encontrar una copia de este estudio para ver lo que decia, descubri que todos habian desaparecido or were cut out of the proceedings. Contratamos a un detective privado que consiguió una copia resumida de uno de los asistentes a la conferencia.

Tambien hice un rastreo por computadora y encontre que la otra mencion de esta tecnologia aparecia en “Outer Limits” en Longevity Magazine que se publico en el numero de December, 1992,. Mencionaba que Steven Kaali, M.D., del Albert Einstein College of Medicine, habia encontrado una manera de inhibir el AIDS en la sangre, pero que eran necesarios muchos años de pruebas antes de que estuviera listo el aparato electrocutor del virus para aplicarse. 

En otras palabras, primero lo descubrieron y luego lo trataron de esconder immediately. Pero se presento una cosa muy chistosa. Dos años mas tarde, aparecio una patente. Cualquiera puede revisar la Patente #5188738 en donde el mismo Doctor Kaali describe un proceso que puede aletargar cualquier bacteria o virus (incluyendo al AIDS/HIV), parasitos y todos los hongos presentes en la sangre, haciendo imposible que puedan infectar una celula humana normalmente saludable. Este es un documento del gobierno! Esto fue en 1990! Porque nunca lo han dicho al publico? 

Tome la decisión de que si habia una cura para el SIDA, tenia que averiguarlo. Cuando revise el trabajo del Dr. Kaali, tome la decision de seguir adelante y financiarlo de mi bolsa. Descubrimos que funcionaba todo el tiempo. Durante dos años y medio, we gave full credit for this invention to Dr. Kaali, cuyo nombre se encuentra en la patente.

Luego descubri que existe una larga historia sobre esta tecnologia. Le seguimos la huella a estas patentes 107 años para atras! Encontramos una patente, #4665898, que cura todo tipo de cancer, fechada en May 19, 1987. Porque la han escondido? Porque su doctor nunca le ha dicho acerca de una cura para el cancer segura absolutely probada? La respuesta es que los doctores reciben $375,000 por patient por surgery, chemotherapy, x-ray, hospitalizacion, doctors y anestesiologos. This is the official statistic from the U.S. Department of Commerce. 

Unfortunately, un paciente medico curado es un cliente perdido. Mucha gente puede decir, “No esta violando las patentes de otras personas?” En el comienzo, me puse nervioso, pero cuando me di cuenta que esta tecnologia habia sido descubierta y redescubierta durante 107 años, cambie de opinion. Now I am broadcasting it from the rooftops. Still, it is very touchy.

Se esta tambaleando la industria farmaceutica, la hospitalaria y la de diagnostico. But I really feel that I have been called to do this. He recibido amenazas en mi propia casa. Me han perseguido y amenazado. Pero creo que Dios quiere que se conozca esta informacion. Siento que es mi mision to give people back to themselves, to deliver them from these vested interests, these priesthoods that are taking everyone’s money. No cobro un solo 

Russ Torlage me ha ayudado con los prototipos del equipo. Se los hemos dado a la gente para hacer pruebas clinicas. De esta manera es como consigo mis resultados. 

LE: Podemos hablar sobre la technology? 

Bob: Claro. El paso mas importante para recuperar la salud and your power es a traves de la electrificacion de la sangre. Estudios de Harvard, MIT and Albert Einstein College of Medicine han demostrado que las microcorrientes pueden eliminar todo tipo de virus, parasitos, hongos, bacteria y patogenos en la sangre. Puedo probar que los resultados de esta investigación se “perdieron” o se escondieron. 

El segundo paso consiste en aplicar resonancia magnetica externamente al sistema linfatico, bazo, riñon y al higado lo cual ayudará a eliminar  invasores microbianos latentes y así impedir la reinfección. Esto acelera la eliminación de enfermedades, restaura al sistema inmune y ayuda a la desintoxification.

La desintoxificacion es basica porque se expulsan millones de bichos muertos y moribundos. Los magnetos permanentes, no importa de que tamaño y potencia, no pueden expulsar a los patogenos con esta fuerza electromotriz. It is important to be able to deal with rapid detoxification sin producir gran molestia. One of the worst things you can go through is detoxification if you are the slightest bit sick. If you go too fast, and don’t detoxify, you have done more harm than good. We go by the motto, “Primero que nada, no se hace daño.” Existen maneras de evitar esta molestia, and we will get into that in a few minutes. 

La tercera etapa, which we found worked amazingly and synergistically well, fue la plata coloidal. Pennies-per- gallon, self-made perfected colloids greatly assist en la eliminacion de todo patogeno conocido y evita infecciones inesperadas. Esto se sabe desde hace tiempo. La cuarta etapa consiste en tomar agua ozonizada for rapid, safe, totally natural oxygenacion celular sin el daño de radicales libres. Me pongo en onda al tomar agua ozonizada todos los dias. Es como tomar un martini y medio. No se conoce cura para el herpes, Epstein-Barre o Ebola

Si se presentaran en nuestro territorio, matarian a miles. Pero no si tu tuvieras plata coloidal y el electro limpiador sanguíneos. 

LE: Nos gustaria preguntarle a Russ Torlage que hablara sobre el equipo actual diseñado hasta la fecha so far.

RUSS: Soy de Vancouver, Canada, y mi empresa, Sota Instruments, Inc., se localiza alli. Mi esposa padecia de síndrome de fatiga cronica, y probamos de todo sin ningun resultado. Habia trabajado como contralora para una empresa multimillion dollar clothing, y finalmente tuvo que renunciar a su trabajo y quedarse en casa, solo tratando de sobrevivir. Me encontre a Bob en una conferencia. I was absolutely intrigued by how much he had to give, no solo a traves de su conocimiento, sino a traves de su generosidad. 

Luego asisti a una de sus conferencias en Seattle. Tengo una formacion en electronica y en fisica atomica, de manera que muchas de las cosas que menciono Bob me resultaron familiares. I recognized his information as basic and sound physical data that could be measured. My green lights were going off, and I said, “This man’s right on the money here.” De manera que construi una de las unidades. 

LE: Cual es la unidad de la que habla? 

Russ: Tenemos una que le llamamos el Silver Pulser, que es un equipo dos en uno. Hace la limpieza de la sangre y tambien hace plata coloidal. Es un dispositivo especial que opera con pilas de nueve voltios, pero entrega un voltaje constante de 27 volts required. It is very liviana, portatil y facil de mantener. Tambien tenemos un dispositivo llamado el Magnetic Pulse Generator, que produce un tremendo campo magnetico. We had a fellow stand about 20 feet away with a trifield meter, and it actually moved the meter at 20 feet, but only when pulsed. It did not give out detrimental EMR’s. It has one huge output, like a gun, causing the microcurrents to occur deep within body tissue.

Se necesita un tremendo poder para penetrar profundo dentro del organismo. Nuestros dispositivos han alcanzado mas de ocho pulgadas de penetracion, so front and back, you are covering 16 inches, which will cover most people. 

Tambien vendemos un generador coloidal simple para la gente que compra the Magnetic Pulse Generator. El dispositivo de ozono es un instrumento brand new que diseñamos en base a las especificaciones de Bob. Es importante que sea a base de baterias operated and portatil and que los gases de ozono no se escapen del equipo. Ours has a unique ozone district mechanism que es un filtro de carbon. As the ozone unit is actually giving up the gas, it goes back through the charcoal filter and is destroyed.

At the same time, as you pour the water through the charcoal, it is purified, removing the organics and chlorine. So now the ozone that is in the water doesn’t have to work as hard to get rid of all the foreign stuff in the water. It is very important that if you do have a portable unit that you purchased at the local supply store, only use it outside in the fresh air. 

LE: Cuantos vasos de agua ozonizada al dia recomiendan? 

Bob: Tomar dos o tres vasos al dia es basico. Esto proporciona una desintoxicación universal al oxidar a las toxinas, and dead and neutralized pathogens. Todos son anaerobic. En otras palabras, no pueden vivir en presencia de oxigeno. Las celulas cancerosas no pueden vivir en presencia de oxigeno. Neither can most of the other disease cells known

You can prove that you are oxygenated usando un pequeño spectrometer that attaches to your finger hecho por la Nelcor Company. It tells you on a meter el porcentaje exacto de oxigeno en la sangre. La hemoglobina de los glóbulos rojos lleva el oxigeno a todos los tejidos del organismo.
Puede cmenzar con un 93% to 95% de oxygenation, que resulta baja, y despues de dos a tres minutos de tomar esta agua, puede alcanzar el 100%.

No solo se sentira mejor, but you will know why, porque el oxigeno es el origen de la vida. (Si el ozono entra en contacto con el agua, se forma hydrogen peroxide – W.L.)

LE: Russ, there are probably mucha gente que ya compro colloidal makers. Como pueden darse cuenta si el que compraron es el correcto?

Russ: Buena pregunta. Primero, los alambres de plata deben ser de plata fina. De ninguna nanera use sterling silver. El nickel es toxico! Do not use it! I cannot stress that enough. La mejor plata en el mercado, which is very rare, se conoce como 5/9, o 99.999%. I know of only one manufacturer, and it is a difficult process and extremely expensive. Nosotros usamos 4/9, o 99.99%, debido a que todavia no podemos conseguir 5/9. The next best grade, which is completely fine to use, is the 3/9 or 9.99%. El mejor lugar para conseguirla es a traves de la refineria de plata mas grande, Handy and Harmon. 

If you have questions about it, call them and ask them about fine silver. Next, the electricity. Bob enseña como usar una simple bateria de nueve-volt en su investigacion. Basically, anything that produces a voltage will do the trick. Nos gusta usar la salida constante de 27-volt porque es muy estable. La bateria de nueve -volt is the survivalist’s way of doing it if you want to have it on your person.

Si compra plata coloidal, and it’s made electrically, se debe almacenar en recipiente de vidrio ambar, and you know that it was made using Bob’s specifications, then I would say it’s a good colloid. But why pay money to someone cuando lo puede hacer por su cuenta y hacer cualquier cantidad de galones?

LE: Cuanto tiempo se puede almacenar esta solucion? 

Russ: Cerca de dos años si se almacena correctamente. It is extremely susceptible a la luz y se debe conservar en la oscuridad en botellas ambar. Bob recommends, ideally, que se tome fresca. Bob: La gente nos pregunta si hay efectos secundarios from this. Yes, se pueden presentar efectos secundarios molestos, but we do our best to avoid them, and we will address that.

Uno de los efectos secundarios, que resulta universal, es la desintoxification. Cuando se presenta la desintoxificacion, which means that all of the dead organisms in your body are trying de eliminarse a traves del higado, se puede sentir mal, get rashes, skin eruptions, pequeñas fiebres and feelings of depression y ansiedad. Si no es alcoholico, si no tiene cirrosis en el higado or AIDS, and are not on your death bed, se puede desintoxificar con mayor facilidad. We try to make this safe for anyone, anywhere. First, do no harm.

El segundo efecto secundario es la electroporation. Esto significa que el efecto de cualquier medicina, hierbas or enzymas que haya tomado, en algunas personas, se pueden amplificar de 20 a 30 veces. Hemos recalcado que no se deben tomar medicamentos de ningun tipo!

Aconsejamos a la gente que evite todo lo que pueda ser toxico en grandes cantidades, incluso ciertas vitaminas, como la Vitamin A y la niacin, y tambien el ajo. 

LE: Let’s say a person who considers him or herself to be healthy desires to use this technology to maintain health and get even healthier. In this situation, como se deben usar estos productos? 

Bob: Primero, durante varios dias antes de comenzar el programa, se debe evitar consumir cualquier cosa que contenga hierbas medicinales, foreign or domestic, or potentially toxic medication, nicotina, alcohol, recreational drugs, laxantes, tonicos, ajo y algunas vitaminas potencialmente toxicas, because blood electrification produce electroporation, which we have already talked about, y que resulta letal. Puede consultar “Electroporation, A General Phenomenon for Manipulating Cells and Tissues,” by J.C. Weaver, Journal of Cellular Biology, Book 51, page 426 (1993), Harvard/MIT. 

Tanto el magnetic pulser como el purificador de la sangre pueden producir electroporation . Segundo, tiene que tomarse su tiempo para trabajar personalmente con los dispositivos. Puede aplicarse el tratamiento durante tres semanas y luego suspenderlo durante dos semanas. During that time, puede usar el ozonized water. We mix and match. Es importante conservar un balance. We watch how the body is 

This technology is something you would want 

LE: Bob, podria hablar sobre los aparatos de ozono. Lots of people have these. 

Bob: There are devices on sale even as we speak that put out toxic amounts of ozone into the air. Estos aparatos son letales. Se puede tomar agua ozonificada. Se puede inyectar ozono en la sangre. Se pueden aplicar enemas rectales and get the ozone into your system a traves de los intestinos, pero no lo puede respirar. Si se respira, resulta toxico!

Si se pudiera oler las huellas de ozono en el aire, eso significa que hay mas de .06 parts por million allowed by OSHA. Estos aparatos pueden oxidar los tejidos de los pulmones, provocando hemorrhaging, impairment and swelling. Nunca respire ozone! And still, the FDA permite la venta de estos aparatos porque eso ayuda to give holistic medicine una mala fama. Russ hizo un generador de ozono de maravilla. 

Tiene un filtro de carbon que reabsorbe al ozono as it bubbles through the water de manera que no se puede respirar. The other ozonizers you see are usually using ultraviolet, que apenas es efectivo en un 2% . When you use cold corona electrical discharge to make ozone, no se convierte el nitrogeno del aire en oxido nitroso y en acido nitrico by-products. En otras palabras, no se esta matando por su cuenta. 

Rachael Carson, en su libro Silent Spring, menciona que muchas mujeres tienen tanto DDT en sus tejidos grasos que no pueden amamantar a sus hijos recien nacidos. Su leche resulta toxica. El ozono puede eliminar al DDT en dos o tres dias.

LE: So todos estos equipos son portatiles, de modo que los puede llevar cuando sale de viaje? 

Bob: Absolutely! You can go anywhere, even into the jungles of Africa where HIV is really a problem. Russ: Tenemos muchos clientes que viajan alrededor del mundo, and they take these units with them. Purifican su propia agua. El tamaño de las particulas de los coloides is important to mention here. It is very important that the size of the colloids be submicron so that they do not get lodged in the skin tissue. What is important here is to make sure you are creating silver ions, which by nature are submicron. Using the electrical process, you are creating silver ions, so particle size is not an issue. 

LE: Russ, mi esposa toma casi 20 supplements al dia. How will she be able to use the machine? 

Russ: Well, it is very interesting. Algunos de nuestros clientes nos han dicho they have read what Bob is saying y han decidido suspender todos los suplementos y comer solo alimentos sanos naturales. They have reported that just by doing that alone, se sienten mucho mejor. That was their first revelation. Where they once spent $300 per month on vitamins, they don’t have to anymore. 


Bob: Recomendaria que tomaran good minerals, and su organismo absolutely necesita de Vitamin C y algunas vitaminas del complejo B. Depende de que cada persona tome su propia decisión responsibly. Alguna gente puede hacerse limpieza del liver and flushes first. Hemos descubierto que la gente consigue buenos resultados by doing that. It is a gentle process for the long term. Let your body become acclimated to the great power that these machines can offer, and continue working with them. We get excellent results. 

Russ: Quisiera decirle lo que paso con la fatiga cronica que tenia mi esposa. Al cabo de dos meses de usar el equipo de Bob, su fatiga cronica desaparecio! Actualmente es la Co-President de nuestra compañia, and es el cerebro detras de todo. Resulta increible! Hasta ahora, hemos tratado a ocho PCR-tested, clientes con HIV positivo. Después de tratamientos de dos semanas hasta dos meses y medio, they each went to zero, por debajo de niveles detectables. Nos quedamos realmente sorprendidos con este tipo de documentacion. Estos son diferentes a los pacientes de AIDS que ha mencionado Bob. Hicimos nuestras propias pruebas. Muchos doctores, particularly doctores naturopathic, estan probando nuestra tecnologia, y sus pacientes se estan curando. Resulta realmente extraordinario observar al microscopio la sangre de un paciente de AIDS. 

Lo que se ve es realmente escandalizante. There are life forms in their blood que se parecen a octopuses con cien brazos, and there are things creeping around. Después de algunas semanas cuando se vuelve a ver esta sangre, todo esto desaparece. La sangre regresa a la normalidad, como estaba cuando nacieron. Bob nos ofrece una forma maravillosa in which each of us can take back our power. Ya no tenemos porque estar debajo del poder de alguna otra autoridad. That is not a spiritually free state of consciousness. The timing is perfect for this. I have seen hundreds and thousands of people getting well from so many different illnesses, even ones we didn’t think the technology would be able to effect. Here is the key: Una vez que se fortalece al sistema inmune, el organismo se cura. 

Bob: God designed us that way. Permiteme resumir by reading a paragraph de mi libro. “Poque no han revelado antes esto los doctores. Esta información se encuentra en las revistas. It has popped up over year to year. Un paciente curado es un cliente perdido. 

When actualized, this data could interrupt HMO profits, desmantelar a los carteles famaceuticos, abort all biological schemes, eliminar la mayoria de los farmacos, medicines, debilities and early deaths, cerrar hospitales y desmantelar inversiones de capital en el cuidado de la salud, minimize insurance mechanizations, disminuir las enfermedades y sufrimientos, plus absolutely imperil social security futures with bankruptcies.” My book pronto se publicara. I have personally taken time to look into this before I put my reputation on it. And now that I believe in it, I am rather evangelical about it.


NOTAS: Recomendaciones de BOB BECK  
1) No comer ajos ni vitamina "a" al electrificar sangre pues se produce superabsorcion de nutrientes(40 veces lo normal) por las celulas sanguineas.  Aunque tenemos testimónios de personas que han comido ajo y jengibre y electrificado y no ha habido ninguna reacción adversa.
2) Los puntos de electrificacion son mejor en los tobillos(parte interna de los tobillos, por dentro de la pierna, por la zona donde las piernas entran en contacto)  un pulgar detras y otro debajo de cada tobillo. 
3) La plata coloidal se puede tomar bebida, analmente, con nebulizador e inyectada. La más aconsejada es analmente y/o intravenosa pues actúa directamente sin oxidarse, como puede ocurrir al beberla, por los ácidos gástricos.
  La mejor plata es la casera que se hace con el enchufe de la pared 220 v en España. Es decir cable  enchufado a la pared y sus extremos pelados conectados a los electrodos de plata pura 99,99% metidos en un vaso de agua destilada previamente calentada. Es tan potente la electricidad que el agua vuelve a hervir sola. Esperar hasta que el color del agua destilada se vuelve casi metalica gris, pero sigue trasparente, o amarillenta. Dejar enfriar y colar a través de una gasa esterilizada.
4) Electrificar 2 horas al dia durante 21 días mínimo o más si fuera necesario, beber 2 litros de agua al día para desintoxicar. Hay testimonios de personas que han eliminado canceres con 21 días de uso y testimonios de personas que han eliminado canceres con 3 meses de uso, y personas niños, adulto y ancianos que eliminan el cancer y las manifestaciones de inmunodeficiencias y siguen usando la terapia como mantenimiento diario con electrificación de 20 minutos y medio vaso de plata colloidal diaría....eso ya al gusto.
5) Esperar un mes para rehacer analíticas sanguíneas hasta que los niveles se normalicen(este método supone por lo visto caída inicial de prácticamente todas las células sanguíneas incluido cd4 y cd8 entre otras y durante los 20 siguientes dís efecto rebote de subida espectacular de todas las defensas. Según Bob Beck es necesario de 3 a 4 semanas para su recuperación, y sucesiva progresión ascendente, si es que a aun a alguien le interesa medirse las tcd4....).
     Sería un estupenda, muy acertada idea  usar dieta de Tine Van Der Maas durante ese mes sin electrificar antes de realizar analíticas y beber diariamente dos cucharadas soperas  de plata colloidal. Y sería una gran idea combinar ambos métodos alternadamente por semanas o meses, si hay reacción al ajo sería una inteligente idea no combinar bob beck y dieta Tine; si no hay reacción al ajo sería inteligente al electrificar usar dieta tine a la vez que electrificación sanguínea. Y comer kefir.
6) El pulsador magnético fue diseñado para electrificar órganos internos, mientras que el pulsador eléctrico, electrifica sangre y piel fundamentalmente. Lo ideal usar ambos. El método de dar pulsos magnéticos sobre el cuerpo acelera los procesos de curación del organismo y ha sido ampliamente usado en Rusia.
     Recordad como decia Bob Beck: Un paciente curado es un cliente perdido para las farmaceúticas.
Si alguien quiere comprar estos aparatos en : http://www.sota.com/. Testimonios e información de cancer curado con el protocolo Bob Beck y electricidad: http://www.dragonfly75.com
7) En general se manifiesta descenso de falsa-carga viral, algunas veces se anula, y en la práctica totalidad de los casos la "remisión espontánea" de cualquier patología asociada al "sida"En caso de caquexia según Tine Van Der Maas siempre tomar batido de limón sin pelar con aceite de oliva extra, ver dieta Tine Van Der Maas.


A continuación un artículo de BOB BECK.
TOTAL REMISIÓN DE CANCER y "SIDAS" A TRAVÉS DE LA ELECTRIFICACIÓN SANGUÍNEA COMBINADA CON PLATA COLOIDAL Y PULSACIÓN MAGNÉTICA.

My archives contain a tantalizing report from several decades ago describing an authenticated record of an older man who was struck by lightning, survived, and subsequently grew a third set of teeth and a bushy head of youthful new dark hair. His grossly metastasized, inoperable cancers vanished. He threw away his glasses and cane, and appeared much younger and was totally healthy for the first time ever. This fascinated scientists and years later almost encouraged some highly illegal and bizarre human experiments in an abandoned aircraft hangar in Wendover, Utah where Tesla coil research with ball lightning was underway. The incident generated wide speculation but few insights at the time. This mystery remained sleeping until 1990 when an astounding discovery was reported at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in NYC by Drs. Kaali and Wyman. Not surprisingly, these data were apparently immediately suppressed. (See Science News; Mar. 30, '91 pg. 207; and LongevIty: Dec.' 92 pg. 14.)
As a totally unexpected and unpredictable outcome of my self-funded research since 1991 into "blood electrification" with micro currents for AIDS (currently showing excellent results) a growing number of users previously unknown to me, began independently reporting remarkable "spontaneous remissions" of numerous other diseases Including cancer. Most involved no doctors, medication, or time off. Recoveries occurred after subjects had self-administered an altered do-it-yourself in vivo blood electrification treatment partially described as an In Vitro process in US Patent #5,188,738 issued to Dr. Steven Kaali in ‘93. (This work may have been anticipated twenty years earlier in 1973 by patent # 3,753,886 and by several others dating back to the turn of the century...) We were puzzled to find explanations. This preliminary report offers one possible theory. The magnetic pulser success with Cancer was independently proven in 1984 and described in US Patent #4,665,898 and eleven other independent researchers and patents going back over fifty years.
The Einstein disclosure describes removing blood from one arm, electrifying it, and returning it to the other arm in a process similar to dialysis. It also describes surgically implanted active electrode chambers containing miniature batteries sewn inside blood vessels. This author's preferred approach leaves all blood in the body, is totally non-invasive, costs practically nothing and is safely accomplished in about a month with ~two hours per day exposures as one goes about his normal activities. It handles most pathogens while blood flows naturally through the ~60cc volume of the electrified forearm's ulnar branch arteries from elbow to wrist. Without medications, invasive techniques or doctors, most pathogens, viruses, microbes, parasites and fungi just tend to disappear. Progress can be easily observed with dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy. The entire process and simple apparatus is fully described in my '91 paper and recent issues ofExplore. (Vol. 7 #1.) Also simple instructions for self-made silver colloids of far better quality than you can usually buy are given. You can turn any glass of tap or distilled water into a 3 ppm top quality colloid in about two minutes anywhere with a shirt pocket battery-operated instrument.
To date many "spontaneous remissions" of dozens of "incurable" illnesses including HIV have been reported by users and researchers of this "blood purification" when combined with ingestion of pennies-per-gallon instantly self-made silver colloid. Since none of dozens of friends using these apparent miracles has experienced infections, colds, flu, pneumonia, or lost a single day's productivity in over three years, evidence strongly suggests restored immune systems or dramatically improved blood functioning. It is also fascinating to note that several pet owners report their cats now refuse to drink water if silver colloid is not added. Trips to veterinarians with previously recurring infections were cut dramatically.
It has long been known that dissections of cadavers dying of natural causes reveal many have had cancer several times during their lifetime resulting in "spontaneous remissions" generally without their knowledge and without ever visiting a doctor. An optimally functioning immune system somehow "handles" diseases of which the subject seldom becomes aware. Several promising broad-spectrum natural immunological agents like interferon and interleukin are produced by healthy Immune systems but would cost thousands for patients with already overloaded or "shut down" defenses although many such neuropeptides could speed cures. Other respected researchers describe "pleomorphic" forms of cancer pathogens which evolve through several stages- even mycotoxin involvement- all of which surrender to blood cleaning. In spite of dozens of theories offered, most diseases disappear with these simple, rapid, inexpensive in-vivo do-it-yourself tools.
Electrification is now being successfully used underground around the world. One Eastern MD claims numerous documented cancer cures by using only blood electrification and no surgery, radiation, drugs or chemotherapy. Many were considered terminal. We're even seeing clean blood tests of now healthy patients with previously long-standing Lupus. We have in our possession many IRB’s showing complete HIV remissions, seroconversions, and negative PCR tests.
The most reasonable theory of why electrification is so surprisingly effective for so many conditions lies in the now-proven fact that when correctly applied directly into blood (not into other body tissue like palms of hands, soles of feet, or organs) it neutralizes all microbes, pathogens, fungi, parasites, viruses, bacteria, mycotoxins and coexisting foreign life-forms and alien invaders and their by-products. This should never be confused with Royal Rife or Hulda Clark technology. Effective results are found to require a minimum of 27 Volts under load with low impedance output, which must deliver up to several milliamperes measurable current into skin to produce the required 50 to 100 microamperes internally through blood after the inevitable series resistance losses through vessel walls plus several layers of tissue. Electrical currents in blood can be measured with an ac microamp meter by IR drop using partially insulated hypodermic needles inserted ~6 inches apart into the same artery. Clark’s "syncro zap" running at her standard 30 khz (considered many octaves too high to be effective) actually measures only ~2.6V peak to peak under load (~2000 ohms) at palms. This is an order of magnitude too low to have any real effect beyond placebo.
The syncro-zapper's current is unmeasurable directly in the blood and physically cannot produce the essential 50 to 100 mA required internally. This may only mask readouts of parasite presence radionically. Unfortunately the live bugs remain undisturbed and are still there and will still be observed in stool and microscopic blood diagnosis. To function at all, electrification requires cotton-covered saltwater saturated stainless steel electrodes never over 3/32" wide and 1" long. These must be carefully positioned directly over and precisely in line with arterial pulse points on opposite sides of the same wrist. This maximizes current into blood by not wasting it in surrounding tissue. Square or round TENS, EKG, EEG, EMG, etc. electrodes work only marginally and should never be substituted.
Preferred instrument pulse-repetition rate is ~4 Hz biphasic with steep rise time and 50% duty cycle. Rate is not critical although much higher frequencies and certainly higher harmonics of the essential square wave output are degraded by "skin effect" where currents travel around the outside of body instead of internally. This is demonstrated by lighting a bulb in one hand while touching a Tesla coil with the other and not getting shocked. Electrification causes no known harmful side effects to healthy cells or tissue. A restored and unencumbered immune system may make one almost immortal I Electrified blood cells are observed to live for well over a month when sealed under cover slips on microscope slides while the average life of "normal blood is ~4 days. This strongly suggests that even aging bodies may easily and rapidly be made impervious to many hostile, toxic, infectious, antibiotic-resistant and even yet undiscovered invaders. The subject is barely scratched with miracles being reported regularly ranging from dramatic weight loss to restored hair, feature symmetry (Prof. R. Thornhill, Univ. N. Mexico), etc., many of which were totally unexpected but that I have personally experienced or observed. Take back your power! This works!
See also the related article Electronic Zapper & Magnetic Pulser
http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/23822/
http://www.dragonfly75.com/eng/ECT.html
(SEGÚN TESTIMONIOS Y REFERENCIAS: CURAR Y PREVENIR SARCOMA DE KAPOSI, CURE AND PREVENT KAPOSI SARCOMA






Electro Carcinoma Treatment Device

picture
Electro Carcinoma Treatment can be done with external pad electrodes if the tumor is close to the skin (within 1+1/2") via the DC Electrifier with 5mA current for up to 4 hours daily for 2-3 weeks, or by the ECT Device with needles in tumors with up to 50mA for 30 minutes or more which is often enough to kill the cancer cells in the area between the electrodes with one treatment.  With this ECT Device needle electrodes are placed through the skin into the center or at the edge of the targeted cancerous tissue. A selected electrical current is then sent to the electrode array, causing permanent damage to the cancerous cells. The dead cells are left in the body to be removed by the body's natural immune system. ECT potentially offers significant advantages over radiofrequency and cryoablation, the two leading thermal ablation technologies in the market today. The advantages include:
Clearly defined and predictable treatment margins.
Complete destruction of tissue adjacent to large blood vessels (no heat sink effect). 

This is the same treatment modality that is used throughout all of China now as an inexpensive and effective way to kill tumors.
Researchers found that the current can stop or kill tumors by these means; changing the PH in tissues close to the electrodes to kill the tumor, changing an enzyme that the cancer cells need to reproduce, toxifying the tumor with oxygen that is produced by electrolysis, changing the transmembrane voltage in the cancerous cells, producing tumor-damaging toxins from the electrochemical reactions, and stimulating the cellular and humoral components of the immune system. 
Electrodes: With the unit comes six 3� long electrodes which are Parylene-C insulated with a tungsten substrate and a 12 degree tip. Parylene-C (para-cloroxylylene) is a bio-compatible polymer which is vacuum deposited on the substrate to form a pin-hole free insulation with a small tip exposure. This insulation needs to be scraped off with a razor blade to expose enough needle metal to equal the expected depth of the tumor where the needle will be inserted. A topical pain killer is helpful to lessen the pain of puncturing the skin. Click here for ECT Device usage instructions.




Additional Therapy:
Most cancer patients are acidic and hypoxic (low oxygen), which is evidenced by a higher-than-normal breathing rate. So first the patient needs to alkalinize their body with grape juice fasting to start, then a near-vegetarian diet with alkalinizing supplements. This acts to stop cancer growth and spreading. The hardest part of fighting cancer is sticking to the alkalinizing diet. The patient will need to stick to it as much as is humanely possible. This will retrain his/her eating habits to make sure there is not a recurrence of cancer later.




SCIENTIFIC STUDIES:
from http://www.iabc.readywebsites.com/page/page/623960.htm:

Five year survival rates for liver cancer patients treated in China is approximately 15%, whereas the five year survival rate for liver cancer patients treated with conventional therapies in the U.S. is approximately 5%. Dr. Nordenstr�m's early five year survival rates for advanced stage breast cancer patients was approximately 60%.

The X-ray images (from: Journal of the International Association for Biologically Closed Electric Circuits in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 1, January-December, 2002), for a 52 year old lung cancer patient show a 9.5 cm by 11 cm carcinoma (left photo), diagnosed by needle biopsy. Six platinum electrodes were inserted into the skin and into the tumor mass using X-ray monitoring. After the patient received six months of electrical treatment (EChT), the tumor completely disappeared (right photo). The patients progress has been very good.


In 1987, Dr. Bj�rn Nordenstr�m introduced BCEC and EChT to the Chinese medical profession. Since that time, considerable progress has been made. Dr. Xin Yu-Ling, Head of Thoracic Surgery at Friendship Hospital in Beijing, China and his staff have administered many EChT treatments. The Cancer Center of P.L.A., Nanjing Ba-Yi Hospital, Nanjing, China also treats cancer patients using EChT. EChT is also available at Guangxi Cancer Institute and Hospital, Guangxi, China.

The Journal of the IABC (Vol. 1, January-December, 2002) provides an overview of the results and therapeutic efficacy for EChT, alone, or in combination with other cancer therapies. In his paper, "Clinical Effectiveness Report for Approximately 11,000 cancer Patients With Various Kinds of Tumors Treated With Electrochemical Therapy" (EChT), Dr. Xin, Yu Ling has reported some impressive results. Most of the patients treated had one of the following forms of cancer: esophageal cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, cancer of the head and face and metastatic lymph node cancer. Almost 70% of the tumors treated were larger than 5 cm.

The five year survival rate for EChT treated cancer patients has been approximately 69% for the combined stage I and stage II categories. If the large numbers of stage III Chinese cancer patients, with very large diameter tumors are included, the five year survival rate is 53%.

Many European cancer patients have been treated with EChT in various European hospitals and clinics including the Klinik St. Georg, Bad Aibling, Germany and Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.


In an Bioelectrochemistry article "Electrochemical Treatment of Tumors" details of the Chinese study results were listed as such:
5 year survival rates after having received ECT
Malignant tumors treated     % survival rate
skin cancer     80%
laryngeal cancer     62%
tongue or lip cancer     62%
prostate cancer     50%
lung cancer     39%
jaw +  facial tumors     39%

Benign tumors treated% survival rate
thyroid tumors     99%
prostate tumors     71%
thyroid carcinoma     53%
breast cancer     50%
thyroid carcinoma     53%
chest-abdominal wall metastases     43%
(These percentages are not in conflict with the 30% rate of complete tumor elimination that the article by the Marburg Institute lists because they aren't percentages of complete tumor elimination, but rather of percentages of patients still alive after 5 years.)

Ablation of Neoplasia by Direct Current
Baylor college of Medicine, Houston TX

British Journal of Cancer
1994, vol. 70, no2, pp. 342-345 (14 ref.)

The application of low-voltage direct electrical current (DEC) has been studied in an humans for the ablation of anal condylomata, oesophageal cancer and Kaposi's sarcoma. Twenty milliamps of DEC passed through multiple 6 cm�1 cm, flat-plate longitudinal electrodes into the squamous mucosa of the oesophagus of healthy dogs for periods ranging from 10 min to 2 hr resulted in denudation and necrosis [death] of the oesophageal mucosa at the site of application of the current. In humans, the application of DEC to two patients with benign anal condyloma acuminara, three patients with inoperable obstructing oesoghageal cancer and one patient with disseminated Kaposi sarcoma resulted in striking necrosis of tumour tissue that was confirmed by macroscogic and microscopic studies.

ECT summary from patent 6738663
Tumor cells are more sensitive to changes in their microenvironment than are normal cells. The effect of the application of direct current to cells with platinum electrodes has been summarized succinctly by Li et al.:

Water migrates from the anode to the cathode while fat moves in the opposite direction (this migration causes local hydration around the cathode and dehydration around the anode).

The tissue becomes strongly acidic at the anode and strongly alkaline at the cathode.

The distributions of macro- and microelements in the tumor tissue are changed.

Protein is denatured in the electrochemical process (hemoglobin is transformed into acid hemming around the anode and alkaline hemming around the cathode).

Chlorine, which is a strong oxidant, is liberated at the anode, whereas hydrogen, which produced local cavitation in the tissue, is liberated at the cathode.

By means of DC delivering adequate electric charge, a series of biological and electrochemical reactions take place in tissue. The cell metabolism and its existing environment are severely disturbed. Both normal and tumor cells are destroyed rapidly and completely in this altered environment.

Berendson et al. believe that the toxic properties of the chlorine close to the anode and of the hydrogen chloride within a broader zone may be enough to explain the clinical effects of ECT and that the liberated hydrogen ions determine the extension of the locally destroyed zone around the anode. Several researchers have also observed that destruction occurs around both anode and cathode (Song et al., Matsushima et al., and Xin et al.) as well as within the electric field established between them. (In early works Nordenstrom cautions against making the center of the tumor the cathode as it will cause concentration of the acidity at the wrong location but later reports that, in some cases, better results were achieved with the cathode at the tumor.) Subsequent work in Asia found an advantage in locating both electrodes within the tumor (Xin, 1997). Nordenstrom believed that the electro-osmotic transport of water compresses capillaries and was seen to block large pulmonary arteries in dog experiments. He points out that a sufficiently long interval of vascular obstruction will seriously interfere with the living conditions of the tissues. Thus, primary tumor destruction is obtained, along with a change in surrounding conditions that prevent the tumor from living. ECT is also believed to enhance the immune system of the patient (Chen et al., Chou et al). In studies conducted in mice there was infiltration of lymphocytes in tumor tissue six days after treatment. Leukocytes have a negative surface charge and are known to be sensitive to low voltage changes and changes in pH and ion strength. At an electrode voltage as low as 100 mV leukocytes concentrated at the anode. Many leukocytes can be attracted to the anode at relatively low voltages but are massively destroyed in the anodic field at 10 V. Nordenstrom recognized that electrophoretic movements will take place at low voltages and current densities and he discussed possible tissue changes with, for example, 10V and 1 to 2 microamperes applied for 30 days. He wrote ". . . it seems likely that DC treatment should be most beneficial when the technique approaches the mechanisms of closed circuit transport in spontaneous healing. This consideration implies the use of energies perhaps in the range of a few volts and a few microamperes over long time periods." He also deduced that AC potential may be used to heal tissue.

Procedurally, Nordenstrom used electrodes such as those shown in FIG. 1. The electrode is introduced through the chest wall (in the case of lung tumors) into the patient under guidance of biplane fluoroscopy or computed tomography under local anesthesia. In FIG. 1a hooked electrode ends 1 of platinum strings protruding from plastic tube 2 expand within tumor 3 to retain the electrode inside the tumor. In FIG. 1b platinum tubes 10-12 provide a larger surface area and can be chosen to correspond with the size of the tumor. Screw 14 is used to obtain biopsy tissue samples. The electrode 13 is shown implanted in tumor 20 in FIG. 1c. Tube 21 is constructed of Teflon.RTM.. Alternatively, FIG. 1d shows a tapered platinum tube 30. Screw 31 is used to obtain tissue for biopsy. Area 32 consists of collapsed wings which, as shown in FIG. 1e, expand 40 to stabilize electrode 30 in the tumor. Nordenstrom recognized that a platinum electrode can be improved mechanically by adding iridium. He stated some guidelines for electrode design and implantation. The electrodes should present a large surface area but must be easily introducible without causing too much damage. He recognized in 1994 that regression of cancer can take place both around the anode and the cathode in the tumor. Placement of both electrodes within the tumor can lead to a treatment result comparable with an initially successful surgical removal of a cancer. However, as with surgical removal, metastases may later start growing in the tissue around the former tumor site. Positioning the anode and cathode far enough away from each other will create a distant field effect that should prevent future metastases. Thus, he believed that ECT of "small resectable" cancers might be more efficient than conventional surgical resection. He advised that the use of multiple anodes and cathodes might cause an uneven distribution of current and recommended that electrodes be neither very close nor very far away from one another. The anode should be kept away from direct contact with large blood vessels if using the large currents and voltages used by Nordenstrom (but not with microampere level currents). The cathode may be placed in a blood vessel. Nordenstrom used a catheter that could be percutaneously inserted by Seldinger technique in, for example, a pulmonary artery. Electrodes can theoretically be placed on the skin (although he cautions against this in a later paper) or inserted through a chest wall, via a systemic artery, a systemic vein, a bronchus or in the pleural space. The venous routes and pleural space provide pathways for current that include the lymphatics. Nordenstrom also noted that flushing the anodal electrode with a charged agent such as Adriamycin or 5-fluoracil in a manner that causes even distribution of the drug with high concentration can lead to a remarkable regression and palliative effects of even large, incurable cancers. Whether supplied intravenously or orally, these two agents are attracted to the electrode, when given opposite polarity.

Nordenstrom reported treatment of 26 inoperable cancers of the lung in 20 patients starting in 1978 and followed up for 2 to 5 years. Twelve of the cancers were arrested and no fatalities occurred. He observed that in some cases multiple other small metastases in the lung parenchyma, distant from the sites of the electrodes, also appeared to regress after treatment of the larger metastases. He pointed out that the therapy was unoptimized at that time. Radiation treatment of lung tumors is not very effective. A rapid decrease in size of a poorly differentiated tumor after radiation treatment is often accompanied by re-growth of the tumor after a short time. Then the tumor is often more insensitive than previously to any attempts at a repeat course of radiation treatment. He foresaw an advantage of DC current treatment of primary neoplasms in the most surgically inaccessible locations such as the brain, spine, pancreas, liver and prostate and in patients who have been rejected for surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy because of poor general condition, cardiorespiratory insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, multiple locations of pulmonary metastases or failing response to chemotherapy. In a later report he cited favorable results with breast and bladder cancer. Also, he treated 14 patients with otherwise incurable cancers with ECT and a chemotherapeutic agent Adriamycin infused into the tumor. The principle, already mentioned above, is that an intramuscularly electropositive compound will be electrophoretically attracted to a neoplasm electrode given opposite polarity. This treatment was successful on larger tumors than was ECT alone and, in one case, abolished chronic cancer pain. Electrophoresis caused even distribution of the Adriamycin throughout the tumor, an effect probably not obtainable with injection.

Recent Human Results in Asia

B. E. Nordenstrom introduced electrochemical therapy in China in 1987 and, partly because of its relationship to traditional Chinese medicine (e.g., acupuncture), its use has been growing in China and interest has spread to Japan and Germany. Xin reported that, by 1994, 4081 malignant tumor cases were treated using ECT in 818 Chinese hospitals including esophageal, breast, skin, thyroid and liver cancers, as well as leg sarcomas. By the end of 1994 more than 6000 cases had been treated. Benign tumors such as heloid, angioma and freckle have also been treated.

Xin et al. published the results of treatment of 386 patients with lung cancer between 1987 and 1989. They found that damage of normal tissue could be eliminated by placing both electrodes into the tumor with anodes in the center and cathodes on the periphery. This has also enhanced the therapeutic effect significantly. They also concluded that the effect of ECT with lower current and longer treatment time is better than high current and shorter time.

Matsushima et al. and Chou et al also placed both electrodes inside the tumor. Matsushima et al studied 26 patients with 27 malignant tumors. The main complications were pain and fever for a few days after treatment. Pain during treatment, especially when the lesion was located in the neck or in soft tissue under the skin, was probably due to sensory nerve stimulation by the direct current. Some lung cancer patients had haemoptysis and pneumothorax.

Song et al. reported the treatment of tumors on the body surface with good results. ECT was found to be suitable for patients at great operative risk, for those who refuse surgery, for those who have not been cured by other means, and for those who have tumor recurrence. They discovered that metastatic enlarged lymph nodes can dissolve when the primary tumor is destroyed by ECT. The method was found to be simple, safe, effective, and readily accepted by patients. ECT can be used in primary as well as metastatic tumors, although the effect is better for primary tumors.

Lao et al. reported on the treatment of 50 cases of liver cancer using ECT. The indications for treatment were: the neoplasm was too large to be easily resected; it was unresectable because of location at the first or second hepatic portals; poor liver function secondary to severe cirrhosis making the patient unfit to stand the trauma caused by surgery; cancer infiltration of visceral organs such as the diaphragmatic muscle, peritoneum, or lymph nodes at the hepatic portals.

Quan discussed the ECT treatment of 144 cases of soft tissue and superficial malignant tumors. Short-term effectiveness of treatment was 94.5% for tumors with a diameter of less than 7 cm. and 29.4% for tumors with a diameter of more than 7 cm. He found that the earlier the stage the more effective the treatment and that ECT for malignant melanoma is more effective than chemotherapy and no different in results from surgery. However, ECT eliminated the need for amputation and dysfunction often caused by a too wide surgical excision.

Wang reported on ECT for 74 cases of liver cancer with tumors ranging from 3 to 20 cm. in diameter. The treatments of 3 to 5 hours were repeated 2 to 5 times with 7 to 10 days between each treatment. Total remission rate was 63.51%. Best results were obtained with tumor diameters less than 9 cm. Additional use of cytotoxic drugs and embolization resulted in a 87.5% cure rate.

Song et al. treated 46 patients having thyroid adenoma with ECT and reported a 97.8% cure rate with a single treatment. This represents successful treatment of benign tumors and destruction of precancerous and early malignant changes.

The above reports from China vary in the amount of technical detail presented regarding each study. In general, however, the electrodes were inserted under local anesthetic. The number of electrodes depended upon the tumor size and shape. The goal was to encompass the tumor with the electric field. Xin et al. state that, depending upon tumor composition and location, soft, flexible or hard electrodes with 0.1 cm diameters were used. The anode(s) was(were) placed within the tumor and the cathode(s) was(were) separated by from 1-3 cm. from the anode(s) or by a distance of 2-3 tumor diameters. There were a minimum of 2 electrodes and, at the other extreme, 2 anodes and 4-6 cathodes set up in two groups to establish two electric fields for a tumor of 6 cm. or larger. The treatment time varied from 1.5-5 hours and the number of sessions ranged from 1 to 5, again depending upon tumor size and response to therapy. The voltage used averaged about 8V but ranged from 6 to 15 V. The current ranged from 40-100 mA and the number of coulombs delivered per session ranged from 250 to 2000� C. Quan gives a rule of thumb at 100� C. per 1 cm of tumor diameter. Song observed that, at 100� C., the area of destruction around the anode is 0.5-0.6 cm and the area around the cathode is 0.4-0.5 cm. Xin et al. observed some blockage of the heart beat in central lung cancer ECT with currents over 30 mA. Keeping the electrodes more than 3 cm from the heart corrected this effect.

The table below summarizes the types of tumors mentioned as having been treated by the researchers cited above: Author Tumor or Cancer Type Xin et al. Lung, squamous cell, esophageal, parotid, breast, sarcoma of the leg, skin, malignant melanoma, cartilage sarcoma of nose, thyroid, liver, keloid, angioma, freckle Matsushima Skin, breast, lung, gland et al. Song et al. Skin, malignant melanoma, lip, tongue, upper jaw parotid, breast, vagina, penis, osteogenic sarcoma, fibrosarcoma metastatic lymph node Lao et al. Liver (hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma, mixed hepatocholangiocellular cancer, transparent liver cancer) Quan Soft tissue sarcoma, head/neck cancer, malignant melanoma, skin cancer, breast cancer, recurrent cancer, metastatic cancer Wang Liver

Animal Results

Yokoyama et al. used direct current in canine malignant cancer tissue and found that cancer tissues of 2 cm. in diameter around the electrode became necrotic in 60 minutes. Bleomycin was then injected intravenously and was found to accumulate around the electrode in the majority of cases. Li et al. studied the mechanisms of ECT in normal dog liver and verified that the cell metabolism and its environment are destroyed in agreement with previous theory. Chen et al. studied ECT in mice and verified much of the theory, including the conclusions that tumor cells are more sensitive to changes of their microenvironment than are normal cells and that ECT stimulates the immune system, pointing out that, at an electrode voltage as low as 100 mV, leukocytes concentrate at the anode and lymphocyte anti-tumor response might be activated. Li et al., like Xin, placed both an anode and a cathode in the tumor. Chou et al. investigated ECT in mice and rats. Pointing out that constant voltage is used in clinics to prevent pain, they used a constant-voltage mode. They also cite the observations of Xin that untreated tumors sometimes disappear after ECT of the primary tumor. The hypothesis proposed to explain this was that the immune system was enhanced by ECT.

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Electrifying division: These images show skin melanoma cells at various stages of disrupted division. The process was fatally interrupted through the use of electrical fields.
Credit: NovoCure

BIOMEDICINE

Electrifying Brain Tumors

Combined with chemotherapy, electric fields help prevent the growth of deadly brain tumors.
  • THURSDAY, OCTOBER 29, 2009
  • BY LAUREN GRAVITZ
The particularly lethal brain cancer known as glioblastoma multiforme is fast-growing, difficult to treat, and nearly always fatal; even with aggressive therapy, patients have a median survival time of less than two years. But scientists are pursuing new ways to attack this type of brain tumor, and one company may just be succeeding. NovoCure, a small startup founded in Israel in 2000, has developed a device that uses an electric field to disrupt the growth of cancer cells, and early results are promising. Out of ten patients who started using the device in combination with chemotherapy shortly after their initial diagnosis, seven are still alive more than four years later, and five of them show no signs of cancer progression.
NovoCure's device consists of insulated electrode pairs placed on a patient's body near the tumors, attached by leads to a three-kilogram battery that the patient carries everywhere. The electrodes emit low-intensity electric fields that rapidly alternate to create a current that has no effect on any tissue in the body except dividing cells. Just before a dividing cell splits in two, it briefly forms an hourglass shape before the two daughter cells pinch off, and this shape is particularly vulnerable to electricity. The current gets concentrated at the cell's narrow waist, and at the very moment of division, the cell membrane is destroyed, and the cells disintegrate.
Previous trials showed promising early results, first in patients with recurrent glioblastoma who had exhausted their treatment options, and then in patients newly diagnosed with the disease. The new results are so promising that the company is now recruiting 283 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients across the United States and in Europe to participate in a two-year pivotal clinical trial. (The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval process for medical devices requires only two clinical trial phases, pilot and pivotal, as opposed to the three required for medications.) Recent results from a pilot lung-cancer trial show that the combination of electric fields plus traditional chemotherapy may also increase survival and decrease disease progression in patients with late-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
While chemotherapy and the electric field generated by the device both have an effect when used in isolation, when they're put together their properties are more than additive--the electric fields appear to make the cancer cells far more susceptible to chemotherapy without any additional increase in side effects and toxicity.
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"Practically all chemotherapies are designed to hit specific receptors on cancer cells, and they are usually targeted to very specific types or even subtypes of cancer," says physiologistYoram Palti, the founder and director of NovoCure, who developed the therapy. In contrast, he says, radiation hits all types of cancers, but its ability to target cancer cells over other tissues is relatively low. "I was looking for a single modality that would be effective against most, if not all, types of cancer, without the negative effects of radiation," Palti says. The electric field appears to do just that. "In the lab, it's effective against all types of cancer cells we tested."
Typical glioblastoma treatment consists of surgery followed by simultaneous chemotherapy and radiation. After about four weeks, radiation stops and chemotherapy continues. But the reason glioblastoma is so deadly is that cancerous cells spread throughout the brain long before they can be picked up by MRI scans. "The horses are already out of the barn, so to speak," says Herbert Engelhard, chief of neuro-oncology in the neurosurgery division at the University of Illinois, Chicago. "NovoCure therapy has the potential of tracking down or affecting those cancer cells that are deep within the brain, because the [electric field] goes beyond what is seen on the MRI imaging of the brain tumor."


Study: Electricity kills cancer cells

Scientists from Old Dominion University and Eastern Virginia Medical School say they've killed melanomas in mice using high-powered jolts of electricity.
Imetrum Video Gauge - Accurate non-contact displacement & strain measurement - www.imetrum.com
Using extremely short, high-voltage doses of electricity, the researchers told the Virginian-Pilot they've never had a tumor that did not respond to the treatment.
Richard Nuccitelli, associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at Old Dominion, said the method might eventually turn into an effective cancer treatment.
The electric bursts often disrupted the blood flow to the tumor cells and shrunk their nuclei by 50 percent, Nuccitelli said. The tumors died after two or three weeks of treatments, each session involving hundreds of electrical pulses, each less than one-one millionth of a second and carrying 4,000 volts.
Nuccitelli told the Virginian-Pilot he and his colleagues believe the process works by severely damaging DNA in the cells. The treatment produced no scarring and did not harm adjacent cells. All of the research mice survived, with no ill effects.
The scientists said additional research will be needed before they can experiment on people.
The research is to appear online Wednesday in the journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.
Copyright 2006 by United Press International

Índice Anterior SiguienteRev Cubana Med 2003;42(6)
Centro Nacional de Electromagnetismo Aplicado

La electroterapia: una alternativa terapéutica para el tratamiento de tumores

RESUMEN

La electroterapia es la terapia con corriente eléctrica directa de baja intensidad. Se utiliza en medicina como alternativa terapéutica para tratar tumores, es de bajo costo y mínimos efectos adversos. En diferentes estudios in vitro e in vivo se ha demostrado el marcado efecto antitumoral de la corriente eléctrica directa, en muchos casos se obtiene la regresión (o cura) completa de los tumores. La corriente eléctrica directa potencia la acción antineoplásica de la radioterapia y quimioterapia, minimiza los efectos colaterales que éstas inducen en el organismo. En esta revisión bibliográfica sobre la corriente eléctrica directa se han resumido los resultados más importantes obtenidos en el tratamiento de tumores, sus efectos antineoplásicos y colaterales, así como sus posibles mecanismos de acción.
DeCS: TERAPIA POR ESTIMULACIÓN ELÉCTRICA/métodos; NEOPLASMAS; TERAPIAS ALTERNATIVAS.
El cáncer o enfermedad neoplásica constituye la segunda causa de muerte en Cuba y en el mundo. La cirugía, radioterapia y la quimioterapia (modalidades convencionales para el tratamiento del cáncer) son invasivas y costosas, y no han dado aún una respuesta completa al tratamiento de esta enfermedad.1 Por otra parte, los investigadores han centrado todas sus esperanzas en la terapia génica, como única vía para la cura total del cáncer. El conocimiento de las bases moleculares de la neoplasia proporciona la posibilidad de intervención específica por terapia génica mediante la introducción del material genético para propósitos terapéuticos. Al respecto, algunos caminos de terapia génica han sido desarrollados para tratar el cáncer: compensación de la mutación, inmunopotenciación genética, quimioterapia molecular, inhibición de la angiogénesis, oncólisis replicativo del vector, y la quimiosensibilización y radiosensibilización. Los ensayos clínicos han sido iniciados para evaluar la seguridad, toxicidad y eficacia de cada una de estas aproximaciones, basadas en los resultados preclínicos promisorios.2
Estas razones hacen que muchos investigadores, en su afán de dar una respuesta completa o parcial al problema del cáncer, propongan alternativas terapéuticas efectivas y eficaces, como: la hipertermia,3electroquimioterapia,4 campos electromagnéticos5 y la electroterapia (ET).6-10 La efectividad de estas modalidades terapéuticas, solas o combinadas con las terapias convencionales, ha sido demostrada en animales y en seres humanos. En el caso de las terapias combinadas, se ha obtenido una potenciación de los efectos citotóxicos y una reducción de los efectos adversos de las terapias convencionales.
En 1776 se sugirió por primera vez que la electricidad podía tener un papel relevante en el tratamiento de tumores.11 En las últimas 3 décadas, el número de reportes científicos, relacionados con el uso de la ET en el tratamiento de los tumores sólidos se ha incrementado vertiginosamente. El primero en utilizar la ET para el tratamiento de tumores malignos humanos fue Nordeström, en 1978, quién trató pacientes con cáncer de pulmón.12 A partir de los resultados de Nordeström, se ha extendido el uso de la ET al tratamiento de otros tumores humanos, como: pulmón, hígado, piel, pecho, esófago y cabeza.13-17 El trabajo más completo citado en seres humanos fue el realizado por Xin,16 en el cual se resume la experiencia de 10 años de tratamiento de tumores con CED en 8 240 pacientes desahuciados, a los cuales no se les pudo aplicar ninguno de los métodos terapéuticos convencionales, por su delicado estado de salud. De los 8 240 pacientes, 7 642 y 598 casos presentaron tumores malignos y benignos, respectivamente. La proporción de supervivencia para 1, 2 y 5 años de los pacientes con tumores malignos fue de 89,2; 56,0 y 36,0 %, respectivamente. Sin embargo, la proporción de supervivencia para 1, 2 y 5 años de los pacientes con tumores benignos fue de 100,0; 96,8 y 94,3 %, respectivamente.
Basado en la experiencia adquirida por los investigadores del grupo de Bioelectricidad, del Departamento de Bioingeniería y Equipos, del Centro Nacional de Electromagnetismo Aplicado y de los hospitales de Santiago de Cuba, en el tratamiento de tumores experimentales con CED y la experiencia existente en el mundo, en el tratamiento de tumores in vitro, en animales de laboratorio y en seres humanos, en este trabajo se hace un resumen de la experiencia nacional e internacional, en el cual se muestran los principales resultados obtenidos en el tratamiento de tumores con CED, así como sus posibles mecanismos de acción.

ESTUDIOS SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD ANTINEOPLÁSICA DE LA CED

Los diferentes estudios realizados in vitro,7 en animales8-10,18-23 y en seres humanos,12-17 han demostrado que la CED de baja intensidad puede ser utilizada satisfactoriamente en el tratamiento local de tumores sólidos malignos y benignos porque induce una marcada regresión, en muchos casos se logra la regresión (o cura) completa de los tumores, que se corrobora por la disminución del volumen tumoral (regresión parcial o total de los tumores), incremento del porcentaje de necrosis de los tumores (mayor al 70 %), retardo del crecimiento tumoral y aumento del tiempo de duplicación de los tumores (en más de 3 veces).
La regresión parcial (más del 50 % de destrucción del tumor) se ha observado en los primeros 10 d después de aplicada la CED, mientras que la regresión completa siempre se ha observado después de los 20 d de aplicada.
De los resultados obtenidos en estos estudios se ha evidenciado que la regresión parcial o completa depende de la dosis de CED, estimulación de los componentes celulares y humorales del sistema inmune y del tipo de tumor. Se ha comprobado, además, que la CED induce la formación de productos tóxicos en el tumor, provenientes de las reacciones electroquímicas,7-10, 12-19, 22 los que provocan severos cambios en su metabolismo,8, 9, 17, 19 potencial transmembrana de las células cancerosas que lo componen,6, 21 y en su pH.8-10,12,19,22 Por la ocurrencia de estas reacciones electroquímicas en los tumores, muchos investigadores han denominado a la ET como terapia electroquímica.
En los estudios in vitro e in vivo se han utilizado diferentes modelos de tumores, los cuales se han inoculado en medios de cultivo7 y hospederos (ratones, ratas, conejo, perro y hombre).8-23 Entre los modelos de tumores experimentales utilizados se pueden mencionar: tumor de Ehrlich, fibrosarcoma Sa-37, sarcomas (Sa-1, Sa-180), melanoma B16, SV-40, adeno-12, AML-4, Morris hepatoma, 3924-A, entre otros,8-10, 18-26 sin embargo, en los tumores humanos se han usado los viscerales y superficiales, exceptuando los de la sangre y los ascíticos.12-17
La dosis está referida a los diferentes parámetros que se imponen durante la terapia con CED, los cuales fueron variados. Entre estos parámetros se pueden mencionar: carga eléctrica (intensidad y tiempo de aplicación de la CED), configuración de los electrodos (par de electrodos o multielectrodos); tipo de terapia (anódica, catódica, de campo o todos los electrodos insertados directamente en el tumor); cantidad de estímulos de CED (un sólo estimulo o más de un estímulo), y si la CED se usa sola, o combinada con las otras formas convencionales de tratamiento de tumores.
Se ha medido un conjunto de parámetros que permiten evaluar la efectividad y citotoxicidad de la CED, los cuales se han obtenido mediante estudios histológicos y anatomopatológicos,8-26 técnicas de imágenes como la resonancia magnética nuclear de imágenes, RMNI),8,27 espectroscopia de resonancia magnética nuclear, ERMN8 e infrarroja cercana, EIC,28 así como el empleo de otras técnicas de análisis químico.9,10,12-27
Otros estudios han estado dirigidos a la medición de los parámetros bioeléctricos en diferentes modelos de tumores, mediante los potenciales bioeléctricos29,30 y la técnica de bioimpedancia eléctrica.31,32 Los principales resultados que se han obtenido de estos estudios son:
  • Los tumores presentan mayor permitividad eléctrica y conductividad eléctrica que los tejidos sanos adyacentes.31,32
  • Los tumores son más electronegativos que los tejidos sanos circundantes a éstos.29,30
  • La densidad de corriente eléctrica observada por la técnica de RMNI corresponde con la parte activa del tumor, esto indica que la corriente eléctrica que circula por el tumor sólo fluye por la parte viva de éste.27,33,34
Estos resultados han sido explicados porque los tumores presentan un contenido de agua mayor que los tejidos sanos; las células cancerosas se despolarizan, sus cargas migran hacia las membranas, lo cual hace que la polaridad de éstas sea más negativa.
Estas causas pueden explicar:
  • Por qué los tumores se comportan como mejores conductores con respecto al tejido sano.
  • La diferencia de electrosensibilidad encontrada en diferentes modelos experimentales de tumores, sometidos a la misma dosis de CED.
  • El mínimo daño inducido en el organismo.
Para un mejor entendimiento de los resultados obtenidos en los estudios in vitro e in vivo se han propuesto un conjunto de modelos matemáticos,35-39 los cuales han permitido:
  • Mejor conocimiento de los parámetros cinéticos y fisiológicos de los tumores no tratados y de los tratados con CED.
  • Mejora del diseño de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas.
  • Mejor entendimiento y esclarecimiento de los diferentes procesos que se inducen en el tumor una vez aplicada la CED.
A través de estos modelos se conoce que los parámetros eléctricos de los tumores y la potencia que se disipa en éstos después de aplicada la CED,6,33,39 los parámetros cinéticos y fisiológicos de los tumores no tratados y los tratados con CED38 y la descripción cualitativa de las interacciones del hospedero y de los componentes celulares y humorales del sistema inmune con el tumor, bajo la acción citotóxica de la CED.35-37

TOXICIDAD DE LA CORRIENTE ELÉCTRICA DIRECTA

En los estudios que se han llevado a cabo para evaluar el efecto citotóxico de la CED en los tejidos sanos circundantes al tumor y en el resto del organismo, se ha corroborado que éste es mínimo. Sin embargo, se ha encontrado que la CED induce daños severos en el hígado y en los riñones y alteraciones en los parámetros químicos de la sangre, y lleva a la muerte a los animales, cuando la carga eléctrica que se suministra al tumor y su periferia excede de 10,6 C (terapia anódica) y 20,6 C (terapia catódica).8,9 Estas alteraciones han sido minimizadas usando configuración de multielectrodos, todos insertados en el tumor.17,18,20,23,26
Algunos estudios han reportado que la CED minimiza los efectos tóxicos de la radioterapia, quimioterapia y de algunos modificadores de la respuesta biológica cuando se combina con las mismas.13-15,22,24-26,40-46 En estos estudios se ha reportado una reducción en más del 10 % de los efectos adversos de estas terapias convencionales cuando se combinan con la CED. Esto ha sido explicado porque al combinarse estas terapias, se utilizan dosis de citostáticos y de radiación de un octavo a un décimo menor que la requerida por estas modalidades para que tengan el mismo efecto antitumoral cuando se aplican por sí solas.
Todos los resultados obtenidos con la aplicación de la CED, sola o combinada con otras modalidades terapéuticas, han sido verificados en estudios in vitro7 y mediante diferentes parámetros determinados por estudios hematológicos, inmunológicos e histológicos,8-10,12-26,30,40-43 técnicas de RMNI,8,16,27,28 ERMN,8 EIC28 y de otras técnicas de análisis químico de la sangre.9,10,16,18,20,22

¿ FAVORECE LA CED LA CITOTOXICIDAD DE LAS OTRAS TERAPIAS ANTINEOPLÁSICAS?

Algunos estudios han mostrado una potenciación del efecto antitumoral de la CED cuando ésta se combina con otras modalidades terapéuticas para el tratamiento del cáncer: como la radioterapia,41,43,44 quimioterapia,13-15,40,42,43 hipertermia,22 ciertos modificadores de la respuesta biológica24-26,45,46 y el láser.47
Zhu y Chou22 observaron que la combinación de la CED con la hipertermia induce una potenciación de la efectividad antitumoral de la CED y una reducción del 80 % del tiempo de aplicación de esta terapia combinada comparado con los tiempos de aplicación de estas terapias empleadas por separado. Según los autores, lo anterior sucede porque la acción de la temperatura sobre las células cancerosas, inducida por la hipertermia, se favorece en medios ácidos, inducidos por la CED.
En el caso de la combinación de la CED con la quimioterapia y con la radioterapia se ha reportado una potenciación del efecto antitumoral de las mismas en más de 20 veces cuando se compara con el efecto antitumoral de estas modalidades terapéuticas aplicadas por separado.13-15,40-44 Similares resultados se han obtenido cuando la CED se combina con algunos modificadores de la respuesta biológica.24-26,45,46 En este caso, se ha encontrado que la CED estimula los componentes celulares (polimorfonuclear neutrófilo, serie monocitos-macrófagos, linfocitos T [CD8+]), células NK) y humorales (TNF-a, IL-2, interferón-g) del sistema inmune. La evaluación de la respuesta de las células inmunes bajo la acción de la CED, también ha sido evaluada en estudios in vitro, se cita que éstas se activan bajo la acción citotóxica de la CED.7 El papel del sistema inmune en la destrucción de los tumores, una vez aplicada la CED, también ha sido propuesto por otros autores.20,22

MECANISMOS DE ACCIÓN DE LA CED

Los resultados obtenidos en los diferentes estudios in vitro e in vivo demuestran que la terapia con CED de baja intensidad es una modalidad de tratamiento de tumores loco-regionales, efectiva, económica y de mínima invasividad. Se ha demostrado que la CED retarda significativamente el crecimiento de los diferentes tumores.7-10,12-26,28,30,41-47 En algunos de estos estudios se ha obtenido la regresión completa de los tumores.9,12-18,22,24-26,41-43,47
Para explicar estos resultados se ha propuesto un conjunto de mecanismos de acción de la CED, entre los que se pueden mencionar: inducción de fuerzas bioeléctricas y cambios en el potencial bioeléctrico,29,30,33cambios en el pH local (alrededor de los electrodos) y en la temperatura inducida en el tumor,7-10,12-19,40-44 alteración del potencial transmembrana de las células cancerosas,6,21 ionización del tejido,22 presencia de productos tóxicos provenientes de las reacciones electroquímicas7-10,12-20,22,23,40-44 y la acción simultánea de las reacciones electroquímicas, fundamentalmente aquellas que involucran a las especies reactivas del oxígeno, y la estimulación de los componentes celulares y humorales del sistema inmune.20,23
En alguno de estos estudios se ha demostrado que el material del electrodo, hecho de oro, platino, plata, cobre y bronce, depositado en el tumor por las reacciones electroquímicas, inducidas por la acción citotóxica de la CED, no constituye el mecanismo antitumoral primario.7,8,10,13,19 Bergues y otros20 propusieron que el pH no desempeña el papel primario en la destrucción de los tumores sino que facilita a los productos tóxicos, generados por las reacciones electroquímicas y de los elementos celulares y humorales activados del sistema inmune, a que penetren al interior del tumor.

¿POR QUÉ LA ELECTROTERAPIA NO SE HA ESTABLECIDO COMO TERAPIA DEFINITIVA?

A pesar de la propuesta de los mecanismos antitumorales de la CED, aún el modo de acción de ésta no ha sido completamente dilucidado, lo que ha traído como consecuencia que no se haya proporcionado una respuesta satisfactoria para los diferentes resultados obtenidos en los estudios in vitro e in vivo. Existen interrogantes que han imposibilitado que la electroterapia sea reconocida en la Oncología Clínica como una modalidad terapéutica más para el tratamiento de tumores sólidos.
De forma general aún no quedan esclarecidas preguntas como:
  • ¿Cuáles son los mecanismos antitumorales primarios de la CED involucrados en la destrucción de los tumores?
  • ¿A qué se debe la diferencia de electrosensibilidad observada en los tumores?
  • ¿Cuál es el rango de dosis de CED, por tumor, para el cual se obtiene la máxima destrucción de éste y el mínimo daño al resto del organismo?
  • ¿Qué informaciones adicionales pueden ser obtenidas a partir de las variables medidas?
El camino de la CED en este campo está abierto. Su carácter promisorio ha hecho que en países como China, Japón, Slovenia, EE.UU., Francia y Suecia, los investigadores se dediquen a desentrañar las interrogantes surgidas para que el mundo pueda disponer sin reparos de esta alternativa terapéutica.

EXPERIENCIAS EN CUBA

Desde hace 4 años, en el Centro Nacional de Electromagnetismo Aplicado (CNEA), de la Universidad de Oriente, en estrecha coordinación con los hospitales Oncológico "Conrado Benítez", Provincial "Saturnino Lora" e Infantil Norte "Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira," de Santiago de Cuba se viene utilizando la CED en el tratamiento de tumores malignos en animales de laboratorio (fase preclínica).20,21,23,35,36 El grupo de investigación viene trabajando, desde 1998, en las 4 interrogantes antes mencionadas.
Durante este período, la realización y repetición de diferentes experimentos ha permitido demostrar el marcado retardo del crecimiento de los tumores tratados con CED, comparado con el de los tumores no tratados, así como la regresión completa de estos (fig.). En esta figura se muestra que la regresión de los tumores es mayor en la medida que la carga eléctrica suministrada es mayor. Para una carga eléctrica mayor a 72 C se obtuvo la regresión completa del tumor de Ehrlich. Los hallazgos patológicos evidencian un proceso inflamatorio agudo marcado, un alto grado de infiltración de los polimorfonucleares y altos porcentajes de necrosis inducidos en los tumores tratados, después de 24 h de aplicada la CED (tabla).
Figura. Regresión de los tumores para diferentes cargas de corriente eléctrica directa
Tabla. Porcentaje de necrosis de los tumores en los grupos tratados GT1, GT2, GT3 y su correspondiente control después del primer día de aplicada la corriente eléctrica directa (CED)
Grupos experimentales
Tiempo después de aplicada la CED (días)
1
2
3
4
5
6
GC
20,1±2,6
[N=6] 
22,3±2,9
[N=6]
24,7±3,2
[N=6]
26,5±4,6
[N=6]
28,4±3,9
[N=6]
30,0±4,1
[N=6]
GT1
50,9±2,1
[N=6] 
55,1±3,2
[N=6]
62,3±2,9
[N=6]
68,4±3,8
[N=6]
60,7±3,5
[N=6]
55,8±4,8
[N=6]
GT2
60,0±3,2
[N=6]
68,2±3,8
[N=6]
74,7±4,2
[N=6]
80,9±4,7
[N=6]
80,2±5,2
[N=6]
75,6±4,5
[N=6]
GT3
70,2±3,6
[N=6]
85,3±4,2
[N=6]
90,8±4,9
[N=6]
95,5±5,3
[N=6] 
97,2±6,2
[N=6]
96,3±5,7
[N=6]
N: Representa el número de tumores por grupo experimental.
GC: Grupo de tumores no tratado. Estos se mantuvieron bajo las mismas condiciones experimentales que los tumores tratados, pero no se le suministró CED.
GT1: Grupo de tumores tratado con 4 mA durante 30 min y tipo de terapia anódica: un ánodo insertado dentro del tumor y un cátodo insertado subcutáneamente a 10 mm del borde del tumor.
GT2: Grupo de tumores tratado con 4 mA durante 30 min y tipo de terapia anódica: dos ánodos insertados dentro del tumor y un cátodo insertado subcutáneamente a 10 mm del borde del tumor.
GT3: Grupo de tumores tratado con 4 mA durante 30 min y tipo de terapia multielectrodo: 5 ánodos y un cátodo insertados dentro del tumor.
Estos resultados han permitido la propuesta de un posible mecanismo de acción a partir del cual algunas investigaciones se están dirigiendo en esa dirección.20 Los mismos también han permitido explicar la diferencia de electrosensibilidad de los tumores (en proceso de revisión por los árbitros de la Bioelectromagnetics), así como la proposición de una nueva modalidad terapéutica selectiva para el tratamiento de tumores, la cual se viene trabajando, en nuestro grupo de investigación, desde el año 2001.

SUMMARY

Electrotherapy is the therapy with low intensity direct electric current. It is used in medicine as a therapeutic alternative to treat tumors, its cost is low and its adverse effects are minimum. In different in vitro and in vivo studies, it has been showed the marked antitumoral effect of the direct electric current. The complete regression (or cure) of tumors is achieved in many cases. The direct electric current potentiates the antineoplastic action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and reduces the side effects that they induce in the organism. The most important results obtained in the treatment of tumors, its antineoplastic and side effects, as well as its possible mechanisms of action have been summarized in this bibliographic review.
Subject headings: ELECTRIC STIMULATION THERAPY/methods; NEOPLASMS; ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES.

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Recibido:21 de junio de 2001. Aprobado: 3 de junio de 2002.
Dr. Luis Bergues Cabrales. Centro Nacional de Electromagnetismo Aplicado (CNEA). Universidad de Oriente. GP 4078. Santiago de Cuba 90 400, Cuba. Correo electrónico: bergues@cnea.uo.edu.cu



British Joumal of Cancer (1997) 76(12), 1617-1622
© 1997 Cancer Research Campaign
First clinical trial of cat soft*tissue sarcomas treatment
by electrochemotherapy
LM Mir', P Devauchelle2, F Quintin-Colonna3, F Delisle2, S Doliger2, D Fradelizi4, J Belehradek Jr' and S Orlowski5
'LPPMB/URA 147 CNRS, Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France; 2Centre de Radioth6rapie and 3Service d'Immunologie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire
d'Alfort, 94704 Maisons Alfort, France; 4U 283 INSERM, H6pital Cochin, 75014 Paris, France; and 5SBPM/DCBM, URA 2096 CNRS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur
Yvette, France
Summary Electrochemotherapy combines bleomycin and local electric pulses that allow cell permeabilization and free access of bleomycin
to its intracellular target. We report the first veterinarian clinical trial of electrochemotherapy in 12 cats with spontaneous large soft-tissue
sarcomas that suffered relapse after treatment with conventional therapies. Permeabilizing electric pulses were delivered using external
surface electrodes, as well as new needle-shaped electrodes that were designed to be inserted in tumours for more effective treatment of
several-centimetre-thick tumour nodules. The electric pulses were applied to the tumours several times from 4 to 15-30 min after a bolus
intravenous injection of 0.5 mg kg-1 bleomycin. Tolerance to treatment was excellent without general side-effects. The cats showed local
inflammatory reactions for a few days and disease stabilization lasted from 2 weeks to 7 months. One partial regression was observed, and
the general absence of nodule volume decrease can be explained by local fibrotic reactions. Histological analysis of biopsies also revealed
massive tumour cell death. The cats' lifespan increased (P40.001), with a mean survival time of 6.1 months (maximum 18 months) compared
with 0.8 months (maximum 1.5 months) for a group of 11 untreated control cats displaying similar carcinological features. Electrochemotherapy
is clearly effective as a salvage treatment for large spontaneous solid tumours in adverse clinical situations and this is
promising for future applications.
Keywords: electrochemotherapy; bleomycin; electric pulse; interleukin 2; soft-tissue sarcoma
Bleomycin (BLM) is a non-permeant cytotoxic drug (Orlowski et
al, 1988; Poddevin et al, 1991). Appropriate brief and intense
electric pulses (EPs) transiently permeabilize cells (for review see
Chang et al, 1992 and Orlowski and Mir, 1993) in suspension (Mir
et al, 1988) as well as in tissues (Belehradek et al, 1994). Cell
electropermeabilization allows the delivery of BLM inside cells
and thus increases BLM cytoxicity by several orders of magnitude
(Poddevin et al, 1991; Tounekti et al, 1993). We have termed the
new anti-tumour treatment, which combines systemic BLM and
permeabilizing EPs locally delivered at the tumour site, electrochemotherapy
(Belehradek et al, 1991, 1993; Mir et al, 1991).
Electrochemotherapy is effective in eradicating subcutaneously
transplanted small tumours (Mir et al, 1991, 1992; Serka et al,
1994; Heller et al, 1994; Yamaguchi et al, 1994). Good antitumour
responses were also obtained in a murine spontaneous
tumour model (Belehradek et al, 1991) and with internally transplanted
tumours (Salford et al, 1993). In the absence of BLM, the
applied EPs did not perturb tumour growth; conversely, in the
absence of EPs, the doses of BLM injected did not reduce tumour
growth whichever experimental or clinical model was tested in the
work cited above. In ulterior preclinical studies, we found that
interleukin 2 (IL-2), locally delivered in the peritumoral oedema
that appears after electrochemotherapy, increases the percentage of
Revised 7 May 1997
Accepted 12 May 1997
Correspondence to: LM Mir, Laboratoire de Biochimie, PRII, Institut Gustave-
Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, F-94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
mice cured after one electrochemotherapy treatment (Mir et al,
1992). Moreover, we obtained systemic anti-tumour effects (Mir et
al, 1995) by the combination of electrochemotherapy with local
injections of cells engineered in vitro to secrete large amounts of
IL-2 (Roth et al, 1992). Consequently, further developments
in electrochemotherapy should consider protocols in which
electrochemotherapy will be combined with immunotherapeutic
approaches.
In a phase I-II clinical trial of electrochemotherapy in humans,
using external electrodes, 50% of small permeation nodules of
head and neck squamous cell carcinoma went into complete
regression (Belehradek et al, 1993). Treatment was well tolerated
by the patients (Belehradek et al, 1993). Later, treatment of other
patients showed that external electrodes delivering transcutaneous
EPs were not sufficient for appropriate treatment of thick nodules
(Domenge et al, 1996). We designed a new applicator device to
deliver EPs through parallel and equidistant needles inserted into
tissues that allowed permeabilizing EPs to reach the deepest part of
the nodules to be treated. The needles form a honeycomb-shaped
array for ensuring a quasi-homogeneous electric field distribution
in the tumour (Belehradek et al, 1994). Excellent local anti-tumour
efficacy on transplanted tumours in rabbit liver is currently being
obtained using this device (Ramirez et al, submitted). Before initiating
clinical trials in humans, it was necessary to try this new
device on large spontaneous animal tumours.
Soft-tissue sarcomas in cats (grade I or II fibrosarcomas, malignant
fibrohistiocytomas) appear at the interscapular area and at the
flanks (Brown et al, 1978). They always recur locally, even after
extended surgical ablation (Bostock and Dye, 1979). Adjuvant
radiotherapy can only delay the recurrence of the sarcomas, and
1617
1618 LM Mir et al
Table 1 Description of the control cats
Histology and grade Last treatmentt Washoutb (months) Nodulesc Surface aread (cm2) Survivale (months)
Malignant fibrohistiocytoma Cobalt 3 1 38 1
Fibrosarcoma II Iridium 0.5 1 78 0.5
Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 1.3 2 45 0.7
Fibrosarcoma Iridium 2.0 1 19 1.0
Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 2.5 3 60 0.5
Malignant fibrohistiocytoma Iridium 0.5 1 50 0.5
Fibrosarcoma Iridium 4.0 1 19 1.5
Fibrosarcoma II Iridium 0.5 1 50 0.5
Malignant fibrohistiocytoma Iridium 0.5 1 50 0.7
Fibrosarcoma II Iridium 1.0 1 28 1.0
Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 0.5 2 58 0.7
aLast treatment(s) before the electrochemotherapy; cobalt, teleradiotherapy (usually 18 Gy in six sessions of 3 Gy); iridium, curietherapy with iridium wires,
usual dose 60 Gy. bWashout period from last treatment(s). cNumber of tumour nodules. dNodules' total surface area. eCat survival after its recruitment in the
study.
Table 2 Description of the treated cats and their treatments
Histology and grade Last treatmenP Washoutb Sessionc Electrodesd ne N' Timeg Duration(h)
Cat (months) (h) (h)
1 Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 1 1 A 8 21 4 16
2 Malignant fibrohistiocytoma Iridium 11 2-1 A 8 42 4 13
2-2 A 8 24 4 16
3 Fibrosarcoma Cobalt 2 3-1 A 8 20 8 9
3-2 B 8 20 8 9
4 Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 1 4 C P 6 4 10
Cells 1
5 Malignant fibrohistiocytoma Cobalt 2 5-1 A 8 24 4 16
5-2 A 8 29 4 12
B 4 27
5-3 C P 8 7 17
6 Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 6 6-1 A 8 34 5 14
6-2 A 8 40 4 17
6-3 A 8 25 31/2 10
C P 1
7 Fibrosarcoma II Iridium 4 7-1 B 8 28 4'/3 82/3
Cells 2.5 C P 1
7-2 B 8 14 4 111/2
C P 3
7-3 B 8 38 4 18
C P 7
7-4 C P 20 5 13
7-5 B 8 40 5 17
8 Fibrosarcoma II Surgery 2.5 8 A 8 23 5 15
C P 2
9 Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 2 9 A 4 52 31/2 141/2
Cells 1 B 4 32
C P 4
10 Fibrosarcoma II Iridium 2 10 B 8 44 4 15
11 Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 1 11-1 B 8 54 31/2 23'/2
11-1 B 8 48 4 20
12 Fibrosarcoma II Cobalt 2 12-1 C P 46 5 28
12-2 C P 35 5 24
aLast treatment(s) before electrochemotherapy; cobalt, teleradiotherapy (usually 18 Gy in six sessions of 3 Gy); iridium, curietherapy with iridium wires, usual
dose 60 Gy; cells, seven injections of 30 x 1 QO xenogeneic CHO(IL-2) living cells within 8 weeks. bWashout period from last treatment(s). cElectrochemotherapy
session. dElectrodes employed as described in the text. Briefly, A are the extemal round-tip electrodes, 6 to 8 mm apart, previously used on humans, B are
external rectangular electrodes consisting of two stainless-steel plates, 6-8 mm apart, for which contact with the skin extended over 2 cm, and C are the new
needle electrodes. eNumber of EPs per run (4 or 8) or programme P of device C. 'Number of EP runs delivered during the session with either the electrodes A,
B or C. gTime of the beginning of the EP delivery after the BLM bolus end. hDuration of the electrical treatment.
British Journal of Cancer (1997) 76(12), 1617-1622 0 Cancer Research Campaign 1997
Electrochemotherapy of cat soft tissue sarcomas 1619
Table 3 Therapeutic effects obtained
Session' Noduleb Surface area SD periodd Survival'
(cm2)' (months) (months)
1 2 31 2 7
2-(1+2) 3 27 2 10
3-(1+2) 3 51 0.3 1.5
4 3 51 0.5 2
5-(1+2+3) 11 4.3 1.5 7
6-(1+2) 3 5 6
6-(3) 2* 11 3 13
7-(1+2) 1 1.7
SCI 27 PR (7)
7-(3+4+5) 4 23 2 18
8 2 10.5 1 5
9 5 27 1 3
10 3 6
SCI 63 0 1
11-(1+2) 5 64 2 3
12-(1+2) 1 3.4
Cl 42.4 2 3
aElectrochemotherapy sessions; groups of session numbers between
brackets correspond to successive sessions performed at intervals of 2-6
weeks on the same nodules. bNumber of nodules treated; *nodules occurring
outside the previously treated area; Cl, cutaneous infiltration; SCI,
subcutaneous infiltration, as described in Materials and methods. cNodules or
Cl or SCI total surface(s). dLength of the SD (stable disease) period for which
disease did not progress after electrochemotherapy; PR, partial regression.
When recurrence after an initial SD period led to a second seres of
electrochemotherapy sessions, a second SD period is indicated. eSurvival of
the cat after the first electrochemotherapy session.
conventional chemotherapy is ineffective (Hilmas and Gilette,
1976; MacEwen et al, 1987). At the third or fourth recurrence,
surgery becomes unfeasible and usually no salvage therapy is
proposed, which limits the prognosis to a few weeks' survival. We
decided to perform an electrochemotherapy trial on soft-tissue
sarcomas in cats in this adverse situation, in spite of a large tumour
development at the time of the cats' recruitment, which recalls
adverse situations encountered in advanced diseases in humans.
This trial using cats was designed as an actual phase I clinical trial
of a new therapeutic procedure: we recruited only cats for which
there was no proposed treatment. As we had already shown in mice,
rats, rabbits and humans that neither BLM alone, given at 0.5-
1.0 mg kg-' (10 or 15 mg m-2 in humans produces doses of the same
size) in a single intravenous bolus, nor the permeabilizing EP alone,
delivered either by surface electrodes or by needle electrodes, was
able to perturb tumour growth (Mir et al, 1991; Belehradek et al,
1993; Salford et al, 1993; Sersa et al, 1994; Ramirez et al,
submitted), the trial was focused on the comparison of completely
treated cats with untreated ones. The results reported here open the
way for initiating human clinical trials of electrochemotherapy
using the new device for intratumoral EP delivery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Inclusion criteria, treatment conditions and follow-up
A total of 23 cats admitted to the National Veterinary College in
Alfort, France, were entered in this study. Because of practical
constraints, it was not possible to implement rigorous randomization
in placing animals in treated and untreated groups. The cats
were in fact brought to the veterinary college for consultation
about their tumours, and inclusion in the trial depended on the
owners' acceptance of performing further treatment on their cats,
knowing that the only possibility was electrochemotherapy
proposed as part of our trial. All cats still had good health status at
the time of their recruitment. However, they showed clinical
evidence of disease progression and were already beyond the usual
therapeutic resources. All the tumours had recurred after surgery,
teleradiotherapy or curietherapy (Tables 1 and 2). The two groups
of cats (untreated vs treated) were similar in age [mean age of
untreated cats 10.7 ± 3.1 years (± s.d.) vs mean age of treated cats
10.1 ± 2.5 years] surface area of the tumours at the time of recruitment
[45 ± 18 cm2 (Table 1) in untreated cats vs 35 ± 22 cm2
(Table 3) in treated cats] and to histological classification: two
grade I fibrosarcoma, six grade II fibrosarcoma and three malignant
fibrohistiocytoma in the control group (Table 1) and one
grade I fibrosarcoma, nine grade II fibrosarcoma and two malignant
fibrohistiocytoma in the treated group (Table 2). The cats
were brought to the clinic just before their treatment and after the
electrochemotherapy session they were returned to their owners or
were kept for 1 day for observation. The treatment protocol was
approved by an ethics committee for animal experimentation.
The control group cats did not receive any treatment and were
simply followed up. For the treated cats, all the detectable nodules
were treated in each electrochemotherapy session. They were
anaesthetized using intravenous tiletamine and zolazepam (Zoletil,
Laboratoire Reading, Carros, France) according to the recommendations
of the manufacturer, with supplementary bolus, if necessary,
to prolong the anaesthesia. Bleomycin (Laboratoire Roger
Bellon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), dissolved in sterile 0.9%
sodium chloride, was injected intravenously, in a bolus that lasted
30 s, at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-'. The longest (a) and perpendicular
widest (b) dimensions of the nodules, of cutaneous infiltrations
(i.e. the large superficial tumour masses, resulting from nodule
confluence or permeation of large subcutaneous infiltrations) and
of subcutaneous infiltrations (i.e. the thin tumour masses that are
not prominent beneath the skin) were measured using callipers.
Measurements were taken before treatment and when cats returned
to the veterinary college. Volumes were not taken into account
because the shape of the tumours was not regular and because
only the superficial parts of the nodules were treated when the EPs
were delivered using the external electrodes. Thus, results of
tumour measurements were reported as nodule total surface, calculated
from the sum of the products of the dimensions of every
distinguishable tumour mass according to the formula X x a x b/4.
Anti-tumour effects were scored according to the WHO rules:
partial regression means a decrease >50% in the size of all the
lesions.
Electrical treatments
The electrodes used were:
(A) external round-tip electrodes, 6-8 mm apart, previously used
on humans (Belehradek et al, 1993);
(B) new external rectangular electrodes consisting of two stainless-
steel plates, 6-8 mm apart, for which contact with skin
extended over 2 cm (thus, skin or tumour total surface
covered by B was larger than that covered by A);
0 Cancer Research Campaign 1997 British Journal of Cancer (1997) 76(12), 1617-1622
1620 LM Mir et al
A
R
U
Figure 1 Histological examination of a biopsy of a treated nodule
performed 1 month after electrochemotherapy. Paraffin-embedded tumour
sections were stained with haemalun-eosin. (A) Picture at low magnification
(scale bar = 200 ,im) showing massive necrosis and a large inflammatory
reaction around and inside the tumour. (B) Picture at intermediate
magnification (scale bar = 50 gm) showing the presence of macrophages,
lymphocytes and eosinophils at the periphery of the treated nodule.
(C) Picture at high magnification (scale bar = 20 gim) of the previous field
showing the presence of tumour cells with very large nuclei
(C) intratumoral electrodes consisting of seven parallel equidistant
needles, 1.5 cm long, 6 mm apart, arranged as a centred
'honeycomb', fixed by an insulating template and inserted in
the tumour for EP delivery.
For both the A and B external electrodes, electrical contact with
the shaved skin was ensured by means of electrocardiography
paste. Series of 100-gs EPs with 1300 V cm-' electric field intensity
(ratio of the applied voltage to the distance between the electrodes)
were delivered at a frequency of 1 Hz by a Jouan PS15
electropulsator (Nantes, France) and checked using a digital
storage oscilloscope (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan).
For the C 'internal' electrodes, the EPs were delivered by a
CELTEM MKO generator (Antony, France) at a frequency of 4
or 6 Hz and were distributed successively to each pair of closest
electrodes by an integrated switch to give eight pulses (four of
each polarity) of 100 ,us and 800 V cm-' between each pair of
needles, at a final frequency of respectively, 0.33 or 0.5 Hz. With
the seven needle centred 'honeycomb' applicator, there are 12
pairs of equidistant closest electrodes. The duration of an entire
run according to this programme, designated P (see column 'n' in
Table 2) was 24 or 16 s.
As a general rule, small nodules and infiltrations with a reduced
thickness, as revealed by palpation, were treated with the surface
electrodes, whereas thick nodules and thick infiltrations were
treated with the needle electrodes.
Associated immunotherapy
Electrochemotherapy was usually performed 1 day later by perior
intratumoral injection of 30 x 106 xenogeneic CHO(IL-2) living
cells, cultured in vitro under the usual culture conditions,
trypsinized for a few minutes before their administration and
resuspended in 3 ml of culture medium without fetal calf serum.
The treated cats received seven injections during a period of 8
weeks. CHO(IL-2) cells are ovarian cells from Chinese hamster
transfected with the human gene coding for IL-2 and in vitro
secreting 3500 units of IL-2 per ml, 72 h and 0.8 x 105 initially
seeded cells (Ferrara et al, 1987).
RESULTS
Treatment procedures using externally delivered
electric pulses
For the 12 cats of the treated group, BLM at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-'
was injected intravenously in a bolus that lasted 30 s. This dose,
similar on a body weight basis to that used in other preclinical and
clinical trials (Belehradek et al, 1993; Salford et al, 1993; Heller et
al, 1994; Sersa et al, 1994; Yamaguchi et al, 1994), is totally ineffective
in the absence of the potentializing EP. The nodules of the
first cats and the thin nodules of other cats were treated using the
procedure previously tested in other animal species as well as in
humans (Belehradek et al, 1991, 1993; Mir et al, 1991, 1992), i.e.
using transcutaneous EPs with external electrodes. Thus, 100 js
and 1300 V cm-' EPs were delivered at 1 Hz, in runs of four or
eight pulses, through two external stainless-steel electrodes (A or
B) placed over the treated nodule (Table 2). In the absence of
BLM, these EPs are totally ineffective (Belehradek et al, 1993;
Heller et al, 1994; Sersa et al, 1994; Yamaguchi et al, 1994). In the
electrochemotherapy sessions, all the EPs were delivered in less
than 25 min, starting roughly 4 min after BLM administration. For
the treatment of small nodules, electrodes were placed at each side
of the nodule and one run of four or eight EPs delivered. For the
treatment of extended thin nodules, the electrodes were placed
successively at adjacent positions to cover all the surface of the
nodule, and each position was treated by one EP run.
The new device for treatments using intratumorally
delivered electric pulses
The new device consists of a support for seven parallel equidistant
needles (1.5 cm long) arranged as a centred 'honeycomb', i.e. as a
centred hexagonal array geometry. This geometry defines 12 pairs
of closest electrodes (needles), all separated by the same distance,
6 mm, and thus the tumour is divided into 12 volume units treated
British Journal of Cancer (1997) 76(12), 1617-1622 0 Cancer Research Campaign 1997
Electrochemotherapy of cat soft tissue sarcomas 1621
separately with rather low voltages [at 800 V cm-' (see below) and
with 6 mm between the needles, the voltage delivered is only
480 V] (this concept has been patented by the CNRS). These electrodes
allow treatment of the deepest parts of the tumours even in
the thickest nodules. Indeed, with the implanted needles, the electric
field will be delivered at the same depth as the electrodes. It is
noteworthy that the electric field distribution is easily controlled
by the voltage generator and is not subjected to dissipation
phenomena as long as the potential difference is maintained
between the electrodes.
The geometry of the electric field distribution across the tumour
and the neighbouring tissues is obviously different whether
internal or external electrodes are used. Thus, for intratumoral EPs
with the new device we chose to apply 800 V cm-1 as our previous
ex vivo studies (Belehradek et al, 1994) showed that 500-
600 V cm-1 was the minimal electric field intensity necessary to
obtain cell permeabilization with electrodes directly in contact
with tissues. Moreover, 800 V cm-' was the electric field intensity
previously delivered using only two needles for the treatment of
gliomas transplanted intracranially in rats (Salford et al, 1993).
These EPs do not affect tumour cell viability in the absence of
BLM (Belehradek et al, 1994). To ensure the treatment of the
whole tumour, the needle applicator was successively repositioned
in adjacent positions in the tumour after each run to cover the
whole tumour volume.
Electrochemotherapy effects
Tolerance to electrochemotherapy was excellent. No bleeding after
the needles were inserted and no burns were observed. Repetition
of the treatment (up to five sessions, Table 2) did not induce any
negative general effect and did not impair the cats' health status.
After electrochemotherapy, they ate and behaved as usual and did
not show any sign of pain. In the days after electrochemotherapy,
only local reactions were observed. Tumoral and peritumoral
electropulsed regions displayed an intense inflammatory reaction,
with an oedema detectable up to 1 week. After treatment using the
needle applicator, local hyperthermia, easily detected by palpation,
was sometimes associated with an inflammatory reaction in the
absence of systemic fever.
As tumours were embedded in oedema during the first days
after electrochemotherapy, total apparent diameters were larger
than those initially recorded. After the disappearance of oedema,
measurements of the largest tumour masses were often identical to
those taken before electrochemotherapy. However, tumour growth
was stopped for a period between 2 weeks and 7 months, even in
the cases in which tumour growth was very rapid before electrochemotherapy
(Table 3). The smallest nodules (diameter <1 cm),
frequently disappeared completely. However, because of the
simultaneous presence of large nodules in cats suffering advanced
disease, we could never score a complete regression of the malignancy.
Global response could not be considered better than disease
stabilization except, in one case, a partial regression (decrease in
the size of all the nodules by at least 50%) that lasted for 7 months
(Table 3). The most relevant benefit was obtaining large increases
in survival times: up to 7, 10, 13 and 18 months [mean survival
time 6.1 ± 5.2 (± sd) months; median survival time 5.0 months].
This increase in lifespan was obtained without loss of the cats'
quality of life. The comparison with the spontaneous survival time
of the cats in the control group [mean survival time 0.8 ± 0.3
months (Table 1), with a maximal survival time of 1.5 months and
a median survival time of 0.7 months] shows that the increase in
lifespan of the treated cats is highly significant (F = 204 in the
Fisher-Snedecor test; P << 0.001).
Histological observations
Three biopsies were performed, 1 month (one sample) and 2
months (two samples) after electrochemotherapy. The tumour
tissue was modified with a large detectable inflammatory reaction
around and inside the treated tissue (Figure IA). Macrophages and
lymphocytes were present in large numbers, as well as a specific
eosinophil infiltration (Figure lB and C). These observations are
in agreement with other histological studies in rabbits (Ramirez et
al, submitted). Even if some remnants of viable tumour tissue were
still detectable, most of the tumour cells were enlarged and showed
pyknosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization, indicative of massive
necrosis. These observations demonstrate that, in spite of a weak
effect on the apparent size of the palpable nodules, tumour tissues
treated by electrochemotherapy were massively necrosed. This can
help to understand the discrepancy between the low rate of objective
responses (only one partial regression) and the large increases
in the survival times.
DISCUSSION
The basis of electrochemotherapy is the cell permeabilization by
the EPs delivered to the tumours, to allow BLM, or other nonpermeant
cytotoxic drugs, to enter the cells in large amounts and to
reach their intracellular targets. Electrochemotherapy development
objectives are (i) to design devices that allow the adequate delivery
of permeabilizing EPs to the entire tumour to be treated, even
if nodules are large and/or deep, (ii) to show that electrochemotherapy
is feasible and is locally efficient even in situations
in which conventional anti-tumour therapies are not useful and (iii)
to extend the electrochemotherapy local effectiveness to systemic
anti-tumour effects. We report here the results of the efficacy of
electrochemotherapy in an animal clinical situation that is particularly
interesting as the treated tumours (i) recur very rapidly after
conventional treatments and (ii) have sizes comparable with those
encountered in humans.
As in all the previously examined preclinical and clinical situations,
tolerance to the electrochemotherapy was excellent, both
during and after the EP delivery (Mir et al, 1991, Belehradek et al,
1993; Salford et al, 1993; Domenge et al, 1996). No side-effects
because of the BLM, the EPs or the IL-2-secreting cell injections
were noticed. In particular, the intratumoral delivery of a large
number of EPs with inserted needle electrodes did not produce
adverse reactions. Thus, it is feasible and safe to perform electrochemotherapy
using the principle on which the design of the
needle-electrode applicator is based, i.e. the principle of dividing
large tumours into separate volume elements that are treated individually
by a large number of moderate voltage EPs. Indeed, in this
case treatment is much safer than that in which EPs are delivered to
large tumours using only two external electrodes that are placed at
each edge of the tumour nodules and which obviously require
much higher voltages because of the much large interelectrode
distance. Therefore, needle electrodes now appear to be appropriate
for the treatment of large tumours. It is difficult to determine
if surface or needle electrodes have different efficiencies. Indeed,
0 Cancer Research Campaign 1997 British Journal of Cancer (1997) 76(12), 1617-1622
1622 LM Mir et al
as stated in Materials and methods, they are used in different situations
according to tumour thickness and, for example, some cats
were treated using both electrodes depending on the thickness of
different parts of their sarcomas (Table 2).
The cytotoxic effects of the electrochemotherapy on the tumour
cells were characterized by a very large increase in cell and nuclei
size. This observation is in agreement with our in vitro findings
concerning cell death induced by BLM. We have shown that, when
relatively low amounts of BLM molecules enter the cells (between
a few hundreds and several tenths of thousands molecules per
cell), cells die through a slow process reminiscent of the mitotic
cell death described in the case of ionizing radiations (Tounekti et
al, 1993). This could explain why, 1 month after the treatment,
some tumour cells seem to be alive even if they are highly modified
and definitely condemned to death. This slow process of cell
death could be of interest in sustaining the immunological antitumour
responses and, being concomitant with the appearance of
the fibrotic reaction detected in biopsies, can explain why the
apparent volume of the tumour tissue did not decrease and, consequently,
why we did not score complete regressions even if electrochemotherapy
regularly allowed achievement of long periods of
stable disease and longer survival times than in the untreated cats.
A previous trial concerning the tolerance of healthy cats to the
injections of living xenogeneic CHO(IL-2) cells had shown that
these cells were well tolerated, without reactions even after eight
or ten consecutive injections within 2 months (P Devauchelle et al,
unpublished results). Here also, in cats displaying large tumour
masses treated by electrochemotherapy, local injections of these
cells at the tumour site have been well tolerated, suggesting that
they may be safely tested in future clinical trials in humans. This
seems important as we obtained systemic anti-tumour effects in
mice when we combined electrochemotherapy with immunotherapy
based on the injections of histoincompatible IL-2-
secreting cells (Mir et al, 1995). Ulterior phase II trials will be
useful to determine the contributions of electrochemotherapy and
IL-2-secreting cells on the anti-tumour effects observed, even if
we already presume that this adjuvant or a related immunotherapy
would be included in future trials.
In summary, this study describes the first application of
electrochemotherapy to cats' spontaneous soft-tissue sarcomas,
considered as a clinical model for the treatment of large solid
tumours resistant to conventional anti-tumour treatments. The
results demonstrate the possibility of initiating safe phase II trials
on less advanced soft-tissue sarcomas or on other malignancies
developing cutaneously or subcutaneously in domestic carnivores.
It also illustrates electrochemotherapy feasibility on large and
thick nodules using intratumoral EPs delivered by a new device
used for the first time in this trial. Tolerance to the treatment was
excellent and we obtained a clear increase in the lifespan of the
treated cats in comparison with the control untreated cats. These
facts are of importance in prompting the beginning of similar
clinical trials in humans.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are indebted to Joelle Gibouin, Bernadette Leon and Fran,oise
Gavard for their technical assistance, Professor Jean Pierre
Magnol from the Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon for his help
in the histological analysis, Dr Alan W Boyd for linguistic revision
of the manuscript, and CNRS, Association pour le developpement
de la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC), Institut Sante Electricite
(IES) and Ministere de la Recherche, for funding this research.
REFERENCES
Belehradek Jr J, Orlowski S, Poddevin B, Paoletti C and Mir LM (1991)
Electrochemotherapy of spontaneous mammary tumours in mice. Eur J Cancer
27: 73-76
Belehradek Jr J, Orlowski S, Ramirez LH, Pron G, Poddevin B and Mir LM (1994)
Electropermeabilization of cells in tissues assessed by the qualitative and
quantitative electroloading of bleomycin. Biochim Biophys Acta 1190: 155-163
Belehradek M, Domenge C, Luboinski B, Orlowski S, Belehradek Jr J and Mir LM
(1993) Electrochemotherapy, a new antitumour treatment: first clinical phase
I-II trial. Cancer 72: 3694-3700
Bostock DE and Dye MT (1979) Prognosis after surgical excision of fibrosarcomas
in cats. JAm Vet Med Assoc 175: 727-728
Brown NO, Patnaik AK, Mooney S, Hayes A, Harvey HJ and MacEwen EG (1978)
Soft tissue sarcomas in the cat. JAm Vet Med Assoc 173: 744-749
Chang DC, Chassy BM, Saunders JA and Sowers AE (1992) Guide to
Electroporation and Electrofusion. Academic Press: San Diego
Domenge C, Orlowski S, Luboinski B, De Baere T, Schwaab G, Belehradek Jr J and
Mir LM (1996) Antitumor electrochemotherapy: new advances in the clinical
protocol. Cancer 77: 956-963
Ferrara P, Pecceu F, Marchese E, Vita N, Roskam W and Lupker J (1987)
Characterization of recombinant glycosylated human interleukin-2 produced by
a recombinant plasmid transformed CHO cell line. FEBS Lett 226: 47-52
Heller R, Jaroszeski M, Leo-Messina J, Perrot R, Van Voorhis N, Reintgen D and
Gilbert R (1994) Treatment of B 16 mouse melanoma with the combination of
electropermeabilization and chemotherapy. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 36:
83-87
Hilmas DE and Gilette EL (1976) Radiotherapy of spontaneous fibrous connectivetissue
sarcomas in animals. J Natl Cancer Inst 56: 365-368
MacEwen EG, Mooney S, Brown NO and Hayes AA (1987) Management of feline
neoplasms: surgery, immunotherapy and chemotherapy. In Diseases of the Cat:
Medicine and Surgery, Vol. 1, Holzworth (ed.), pp. 597-606. WB Saunders:
Philadelphia
Mir LM, Banoun H and Paoletti C (1988) Introduction of definite amounts of
nonpermeant molecules into living cells after electroperneabilization: direct
access to the cytosol. Exp Cel Res 175: 15-25
Mir LM, Orlowski S, Belehradek Jr J and Paoletti C (1991) Electrochemotherapy:
potentiation of antitumour effect of bleomycin by local electric pulses. Eur J
Cancer 27: 68-72
Mir LM, Orlowski S, Poddevin B and Belehradek Jr J (1992) Electrochemotherapy
tumor treatment is improved by interleukin-2 stimulation of the host's defenses.
Eur Cytokine Netw 3: 331-334
Mir LM, Roth C, Orlowski S, Quintin-Colonna F, Fradelizi D, Belehradek Jr J and
Kourilsky P (1995) Systemic antitumor effects of electrochemotherapy
combined with histoincompatible cells secreting interleukin-2. J Immunother
17: 30-38
Orlowski S and Mir LM (1993) Cell electropermeabilization: a new tool for
biochemical and pharmacological studies. Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 51-63
Orlowski S, Belehradek Jr J, Paoletti C and Mir LM (1988) Transient
electropermeabilization of cells in culture: increase of the cytotoxicity of
anticancer drugs. Biochem Pharmacol 37: 4727-4733
Poddevin B, Orlowski S, Belehradek Jr J and Mir LM (1991) Very high cytotoxicity
of bleomycin introduced into the cytosol of cells in culture. Biochem
Pharmacol 42(S): 67-75
Roth C, Mir LM, Cressent M, Quintin-Colonna F, Ley V, Fradelizi D and Kourilsky
P (1992) Inhibition of tumor growth by histoincompatible cells expressing
interleukin-2. Int Immunol 4: 1429-1436
Salford LG, Persson BRR, Brun A, Ceberg CP, Konstad PC and Mir LM (1993) A
new brain tumour therapy combining bleomycin with in vivo
electropermeabilization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 194: 938-943
Serta G, Cemazar M, Miklavci D and Mir LM (1994) Electrochemotherapy:
variable anti-tumor effect on different tumor models. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg
35: 23-27
Tounekti 0, Pron G, Belehradek Jr J and Mir LM (1993) Bleomycin, an apoptosismimetic
drug that induces two types of cell death depending on the number of
molecules intemalized. Cancer Res 53: 5462-5469
Yamaguchi 0, Irisawa C, Baba K, Ogihara M, Yokota T and Shiraiwa Y (1994)
Potentiation of antitumor effect of bleomycin by local electric pulses in mouse
bladder tumor. Tohoku J Exp Med 172: 291-293
British Journal of Cancer (1997) 76(12), 1617-1622 c Cancer Research Campaign 1997
[THE LANCET] THE GOVERNMENT AND THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. [JAN.10, 1880]:(CURADO Y REJUVENECIDO POR UN RAYO) http://www.papimi.gr/lancet.htm

THE LANCET] THE GOVERNMENT AND THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. [JAN.10, 1880]



THE LANCET

LONDON: SATURDAY, JANUARY 10, 1880.

 THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING UPON CANCER

To the Editor of THE LANCET.
SIR,-As I am not aware that the records of the healing art furnish any case of cancer having yielded to the influence of lightning, I venture to draw the attention of the numerous readers of THE LANCET to the following remarkable case, which may awaken due interest in the curative value of electricity in diseases of a malignant type. Many years ago I heard the late Dr. Golding Bird express an opinion to the effect that electrical sparks drawn from a cancerous structure until an eruption is produced was the only reliable means of cure which he could endorse. In confirmation of the theory of the celebrated electrician, I beg to submit an extraordinary instance of the therapeutic freaks of atmospherical electricity in the cure of cancer. The case loses none of its interest on the plea of antiquity.
About thirty years ago, I attended Reuben S,---, a farm labourer, residing at Langtoft, on the Yorkshire Wolds, who suffered from cancer of the inferior lip and part of the chin for about a year, and who had agreed to an operation for their removal. In the meantime he under took to assist a poor farmer for a day in ploughing his land. During this Occupation he was struck down by lightning, and carried home in a state of insensibility. Both of his horses were killed, and the wooden beam of the plough was split and reduced to considerable fragments. Soon after the occurrence I visited, and found the ploughman in a state of great prostration, and emitting a strong odour of ozone, indicating electrical condensation of the adherent oxygen. As soon as reaction took place I bled him from the arm, which act constituted the whole of the treatment. What seems to be the most astonishing feature in the case is the healing process which was set up in the lip and chin soon after the accident. The cancer gradually lessened, and in a few weeks every trace of the diseased structure disappeared, and for ten years he enjoyed complete freedom from his former suffering and signs of the disease. In proof of the specific and hereditary character of the disorder, I may sate that the patient's granddaughter, Mrs. P-, of Driffield, lately became the subject of a cancerous tumour over the larynx, which growth, assisted by Dr. Rames, I removed successfully a few weeks ago, and under the persistent use of arsenical treatment the cure seems to be satisfactory. In S-'s case the electrical fluid seemed to form and pass through two small holes in the head-band of his trousers, and to make its exit by corresponding apertures. After this remarkable exemption from all cancerous development for so long a period, the disease reappeared, and, after a year of intense suffering, proved fatal ; still leaving the inference unaffected, that the imponderable element secured for the patient an extension of life, and ten years' relief from the distressing consequences of carcinoma, which circumstance establishes my faith in the therapeutic power of electricity in scirrhous indurations. From the foregoing representation, it is evident that frictional electricity may in good hands become one of the most powerful therapeutic agents in the dispersion of cancerous formations. When cellular hypertrophy takes place in localities favourable to the development of epithelial disease, frictional electricity might be employed for the purpose of destroying the morbid cells, whether in their incipient or advanced stages of progression. The authorities of the London Cancer Hospital will be unfaithful to their honourable trust should they decline to test to the fullest extent the curative effects of frictional electricity in some of the most hopeless variety of diseases to which humanity is exposed. I shall not venture upon any theory of the specific action of electricity on morbid depositions but consign the whole question to the abler readers of your incomparable journal.

I remain, Sir, yours &c.,A. ALLISON, M.D.,
Senior Surgeon to the Lloyd Cottage Hospital,
Bridlington.




See also :
Has anyone had health problems relieved by Lightning / eletrical shock? I was struck april 20 2001.I have dealt with severe exema on my hands for several years, but since the Lightning strike my hands healed almost completly. For how long I don't know. Anyone have a similar experience or input?    http://www.mensanaclinic.com/discus/messages/4/49.html?ThursdayJanuary2420021145am   click here    or here
"I'm feeling like my body is light. It's the best I've probably felt as far as energy in 10 years."
John Corson, 56, a day after being struck by lightning. 

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/07/26/national/main631934.shtml
  click here   or here
I'm seeking the name of the lady - or her husband or family members - who was struck by lightning while running her bath while living in Oklahoma. She had had a crippling type disease and her symptoms were cured after the lightning strike.
I believe this woman and family since moved elsewhere. The episode guide online says the episode aired on March 29, 1996.http://www.sitcomsonline.com/boards/archive/index.php/t-166983.htm
clickhere     or here
> ...... I saw a most interesting program about a woman who 
> was struck by lighting and completely healed of the viral
> disease she had. I  think it was MS, and the doctors 
> said she would never walk again. She was running water 
> for her bath when her metal leg brace came in contact with the 
> iron tub. She was by eye witness accounts, blown across the 
> room from the lightning bolt and found several feet from her wheel
> chair.  http://www.pupman.com/listarchives/2002/May/msg00995.html click here   or here
......... At the village where the cars stopped, we listened with much amusement to the story of a fat, comfortable-looking individual, who was cured by lightning in the following manner:–He was in the last stage of a decline, when, one hot July morning, he was knocked down by a thunderbolt, a ball of fire, which entered his side, ran all through his body, and came out at his arm. At the place where the ball made its exit, a large ulcer was formed, and when it dispersed he found himself in perfect health, in which he has continued ever since! In such cases the "bottled lightning" demanded by Mrs. Nickleby's admirer, might be a valuable remedy.
http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/calderon/mexico/mexico-I.html 

see also : Life in Mexico by Frances Calderon de la Barca, 1843 edition,  page 23   clickhere
Searching old books for the exact phrase "cured by lightning"  by clicking here
For the saved results  click here

The therapeutic effect of lightning-stroke is verified by a number of cases, a few of which are mentioned in the following book :
Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine 
Being an encyclopedic collection of rare and extraordinary cases, 
and of the most striking instances of abnormality in all branches
of medicine and surgery, derived from an exhaustive research of
medical literature from its origin to the present day,
abstracted, classified, annotated, and indexed.
by  GEORGE M. GOULD, A.M.,  M.D.    and    WALTER L. PYLE, A.M.,  M.D. 


Curiously, this book text cannot be retrieved from World Wide School (two links above) or from Google's "cashed links" (click below) for a wile : 
http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:cG0YI0khKiYJ:www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/AnomaliesandCuriositiesofMedicine/chap14.html+%22Anomalies+and+Curiosities+of+Medicine%22+lightning&hl=el&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=gr
Neither the World Wide School could be found for some time, click below  :
http://www.google.gr/search?num=100&hl=el&as_qdr=all&q=worldwideschool+%22Anomalies+and+Curiosities+of+Medicine%22+&btnG=%CE%91%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%B6%CE%AE%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%B7&meta=
Anyway, here is relevant text from Chapter 14 of this book :
 ........  The therapeutic effect of lightning-stroke is verified by a number of cases, a few of which will be given. Tilesius mentions a peculiar case which was extensively quoted in London. Two brothers, one of whom was deaf, were struck by lightning. It was found that the inner part of the right ear near the tragus and anti-helix of one of the individuals was scratched, and on the following day his hearing returned. Olmstead quotes the history of a man in Carteret County, N.C., who was seized with a paralytic affection of the face and eyes, and was quite unable to close his lids. While in his bedroom, he was struck senseless by lightning, and did not recover until the next day, when it was found that the paralysis had disappeared, and during the fourteen years which he afterward lived his affection never returned. There is a record of a young collier in the north of England who lost his sight by an explosion of gunpowder, utterly destroying the right eye and fracturing the frontal bone. The vision of the left eye was lost without any serious damage to the organ, and this was attributed to shock. On returning from Ettingshall in a severe thunder storm, he remarked to his brother that he had seen light through his spectacles, and had immediately afterward experienced a piercing sensation which had passed through the eye to the back of the head. The pain was brief, and he was then able to see objects distinctly. From this occasion he steadily improved until he was able to walk about without a guide.
Le Conte mentions the case of a negress who was struck by lightning August 19, 1842, on a plantation in Georgia. For years before the reception of the shock her health had been very bad, and she seemed to be suffering from a progressive emaciation and feebleness akin to chlorosis. The difficulty had probably followed a protracted amenorrhea, subsequent to labor and a retained placenta In the course of a week she had recovered from the effects of lightning and soon experienced complete restoration to health; and for two years had been a remarkably healthy and vigorous laborer. Le Conte quotes five similar cases, and mentions one in which a lightning-shock to a woman of twenty-nine produced amenorrhea, whereas she had previously suffered from profuse menstruation, and also mentions another case of a woman of seventy who was struck unconscious; the catamenial discharge which had ceased twenty years before, was now permanently reestablished, and the shrunken mammae again resumed their full contour.  .....................


This book can be found also in the University of Virginia Library - Electronic Text Center, http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/GouAnom.html

http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/images/modeng/public/GouAnom/GouAnoTi.jpg


http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/images/modeng/public/GouAnom/GouAnoSp.jpg
Read about the therapeutic effect of lightning in the :   CHAPTER XIV. MISCELLANEOUS SURGICAL ANOMALIES. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=GouAnom.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=14&division=div1 
You can download this book from the Electronic Text Center of the  University of Virginia Library http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=GouAnom.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=all
A txt version without pictures can be found elsewhere :
 http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext96/aacom10.txt
ftp://sailor.gutenberg.lib.md.us/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
ftp://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/pub/mirror/ibiblio/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
ftp://cis.uniroma2.it/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
http://eremita.di.uminho.pt/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
http://www.mirrorservice.org/sites/ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
ftp://ftp.pg.psnc.pl/pub/etext96/aacom10.txt
ftp://ftp.mirrorservice.org/sites/ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext96/aacom10.txt
http://pinkmonkey.com/dl/library1/digi329.pdf
http://www.silkpagoda.com/dvdlist/acromax/aacom.pdf
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American Journal of Science 3:100, 1821 
"Case of a Paralytic Affection, Cured by a Stroke of Lightning"   D. Olmsted

American Journal of Science 6:329, 1823 
"Cure of Asthma by a Stroke of Lightning"   R. Emerson

Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery 13:162, 1846 
"Effects of Lightning"   J. Leconte

Lancet 1:77, 1880 
"Therapeutic Effects of Lightning Upon Cancer"   A. Allison 

 

" An Account of the Effect of Lightning in Discussion of a Tumor of the Breast " A. Eason.
Medical and Philosophical Comment 4:82, in "Miscellaneous or Philosophical Extracts from different authors with some originals", T Dolson (Ed), Philadelphia, Volume 2, pp 295-300, 1776.


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download at: http://ia600407.us.archive.org/7/items/cu31924031253507/cu31924031253507.pdf
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 From the book :  "Electrical Healing and the Violet ray"   by Gary J. Lockhart
www.arthurleej.com/Violet.pdf  


clicktoenlarge

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American Journal of Science 6:329, 1823 
"Cure of Asthma by a Stroke of Lightning"   R. Emerson  



American Journal of Science 3:100, 1821 
"Case of a Paralytic Affection, Cured by a Stroke of Lightning"   D. Olmsted 


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Ξανάνιωσε από χτύπημα κεραυνού
http://www.liako.gr/anexigito/unknown-mystery/313-2009-02-19-11-58-37.html

ΝΕΟΤΗΤΑ ΧΩΡΙΣ ΝΙΑΤΑ
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The theme of rejuvenation by lightning has been used by Mircea Eliade. 
Recently, Francis Ford Coppola ( creator of  "The Goodfather", "Apocalypse"  etc) make it a movie titled : YOUTH WITHOUT YOUTH  http://www.ywyfilm.com/   
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